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Simon Lyall: 2018 – Day 4 – Session 2

Thu, 2018-01-25 15:03

Personalisation at Scale: A “Cookie Cutter” Approach Jim O’Halloran

  • Impact on site performance on conversion is huge
  • Magento
    • LAMP stack + Redis or memcached
    • Generally App is CPI bound
    • Routing / Rendering still time consuming
  • Varnish full page caching (FPC)
  • But what about personalised content?
  • Edge Side Includes (ESIs)
    • But ESIs run in series, is slllow when you have many
    • Content is nont cacheable, expensive to calculate, significant render time
    • ESI therefore undermines much advantage of FPC
  • Ajax
    • Make ajax request and fetch personalised content
    • Still load on backend
    • ESI limitations plus added network latency
  • Cookie Cutter
    • When an event occurs that modifies personalisation state, send a cookies containing the required data with the response.
    • In the browser, use the content of that cookie to update the page


  • Goto
    • Probably cached in varnish
    • I don’t have a cookie
    • If I login, uncachable request, I am changing login state
    • Response includes Set-Cookie header creating a personalised cookie
  • Advantages
    • No backend requests
    • Page data served is cached always
  • How big can cookies be?
    • RFC 6265 has limits but in reality
    • Actual limit ~4096 bytes per cookie
    • Some older browsers also limit to ~4096 bytes total per domain

Potential issues

  • Request Size
    • Keep cookies small
      • Store small values only, No pre-rendered markup, No larger data structures
    • Serve static assets via CDN
    • Lot of stuff in cart can get huge
  • Information leakage
    • Final URLs leaked to unlogged in users
  • Large Scale changes
    • Page needs to look completely different to different users
    • Vary headers might be an option
  • Formkeys
    • XSRF protection workarounds
  • What about cache misses
    • Megento assembles all it’s pages from a series of blocks
    • Most parts of page are relatively static (block cache)
    • Aligent_CacheObserver – Megento extension that adds cache tags to blocks that should be cached but were not picked up as cachable by default
    • Aoe_TemplateHints – Visibility into Block cache
    • Cacheing != Performance Optimisation – Aoe_Profiler


  • Plugin availbale for Megento 1
    • Varnish CookieCutter
  • For Magento 2 has native varnish
    • But has limitations
    • Maybe some off CookieCutter stuff could improve


  • localStorage instead of cookies


Simon Lyall: 2018 – Day 4 – Session 1

Thu, 2018-01-25 13:03

Panel: Meltdown, Spectre, and the free-software community Jonathan Corbet, Andrew ‘bunnie’ Huang, Benno Rice, Jess Frazelle, Katie McLaughlin, Kees Cook

  • FreeBSD only heard 11 days beforehand. Would have liked more notice
  • Got people involved from the Kernel Summit in Oct
  • Hosting company only heard once it went official, been busy patching since
  • Likely to be class-action lawsuit for $billions. That might make chip makers more paranoid about documentation and disclosure.
  • Thoughts in embargo
    • People noticed strange patches going in beforehand.
    • Only broke 6 days early, had been going for 6 months
    • “Linus is happy with this, something is terribly wrong”
    • Sad that the 2nd-tier cloud providers didn’t know. Exclusive club and lines as to who got informed were not clear
    • Projects that don’t have explicit relationship with Intel didn’t get informed
  • Thoughts on other vendors
    • This class of bugs could affect anybody, open hardware would probably not fix
    • More open hardware could enable people to review the processors and find these from the design rather than poking around
    • Hard to guarantee the shipped hardware matches the design
    • Software people can build everything at home and check. FABs don’t work at home.
  • Speculative execution warned about years ago. Danger ignored. How to make sure the next one isn’t ignored?
    • We always have to do some risky stuff
    • The research on this built up slowly over the years
    • Even if you have only found impractical attacks against something doesn’t mean the practical one doesn’t exist.
  • What criteria do we use to decide who is in?
    • Mechanisms do exist, they were mainly not used. Perhaps because they were for software vulnerabilities
  • Did people move providers?
    • No but Containers made things easier to reboot stuff and shuffle
  • Are there similar vulnerabilities ( similar or general hardware ) coming along?
    • The Kernel page-table patches were fairly general, should cover many similar ones
    • All these performance optimising bit of your CPU are now attack surfaces
    • What are people going to do if this slows down hardware too much?
  • How do we explain problems like these to politicians etc
    • Legos
    • We still have kernel devs getting their laptops
  • Can be use CPUs that don’t have speculative execution?
    • Not really. Back to 486s
  • Who are we protesting against with the embargo?
    • Everybody
    • The longer period let better fixes get in
    • The meltdown fix could be done in semi-public so had better quality

What is the most common street name in Australia? Rachel Bunder

  • Why?
    • Saw a map with most common name by US street
  • Just looking at name, not end bit “park” , “road”
  • Data
    • PSMA Geocoded national address file – Great but came out after project
    • Use Open Street Maps
  • Started with Common Name in Sydney
    • Used Metro Extracts – site closing down soon
    • Format is geojson
    • Road files separately provided
  • Procedure
    • Used python, R also has good features and libaraies
    • geopandas
    • Had some paths with no names
    • What is a road? – “Something with a name I can drive a car on”
  • Sydney
    • Full street name
      • Victoria Road
      • Pacific Highway
      • oops like like names are being counted twice
    • Tried merging them together
    • Roads don’t 100% match ends. Added function to fuzzy merge the roads that are 100m apart
    • Still some weird ones but probably won’t affect top
    • Second attempt
      • Short st, George st, William st, John st, Church st
  • Now with just the “name bit”
    • Tried taking out just the last name. ended up with “the” as most common.
    • Started with “The” = whole name
    • Single word = whole name
    • name – descriptor – suffex
    • lots of weird names
    • name list – Park, Victoria, Railway, William, Short
  • Wouldn’t work in many other counties
  • Now for all over Australia
    • overpass data
    • Downloaded in 50kmx50x squares
  • Lessons
    • Start small
    • Choose something familiar
    • Check you bias (different naming conventions)
    • Constance vigerlence
    • Know your problem
  • Common plant names
    • Wattle – 15th – 385
  • Other name
    • “The Esplanade” more common than “The Avenue”
  • Top names
    • 5th – Victoria
    • 4th – Church – 497
    • 3rd – George –  551
    • 2nd – Railway
    • 1st – Park – 693
  • By State
    • WA – Forest
    • SA – Railway
    • Vic – Park
    • Tas – Esplanade
    • NT – Smith/Stuart
    • NSW – Park


Simon Lyall: 2018 – Day 4 – Keynote – Hugh Blemings

Thu, 2018-01-25 11:03

Wandering through the Commons

Reflections on Free and Open Source Software/Hardware in Australia, New Zealand and beyond

  • Past’s reviewed
  • FOSS in Aus and NZ
    • Above per capita
  • List of Aus / NZ people and their contributions
    • John Lions , Lions book on Unix
    • Pia Andrews/Waugh/Smith – Open Government, GovHack, Linux Australia, Open Data
    • Vik Oliver – 3D Printing
    • Clare Cuuran – Open Government in NZ
    • plus a bunch of others

Working in Free Software and Open Hardware

  • The basics
    • Be visable in projects of relevance
      • You will be typed into Google, looked at in GitHub
    • Be yourself
      • But be business Friendly
    • Linkedin is a thing, really
    • Need a accurate basic presence
  • Finding a new job
    • Networks
    • Local user groups
    • Conferences
    • The projects you work on
  • Application and negotiation
    • Be professional, courteous
    • Do homework about company and culture
    • Talk to people that work there
    • Spend time on interview prep
      • Know your stuff, if you don’t know, say so
    • Think about Salary expectations and stick to them
      • Val Aurora’s page on this is excellent
    • Ask to keep copyright on your code
      • Should be a no-brainer for a FOSS.OH company
  • In the Job
    • Takes time to get into groove, don’t sweat it
    • Get out every now and then, particularly if working from home
    • Work/life balance
    • Know when to jump
      • Poisonous workplaces
    • An aside to People’s managers
      • Bring your best or don’t be a people manager
      • Take your reports welfare seriously

Looking after You

  • Ours is in the main a sedentary and solitary pursuit
    • exercise
  • Sitting and standing in front of a desk all day is bad
    • takes breaks
  • Depression is a real thing
  • Eat more vegetables
  • Find friends/colleagues to exercise with

Working if FOSS / OH – Staying Current

  • Look over a colleagues shoulder
  • Do something that is not part of your regular job
    • low level programming
    • Karger systems, Openstack
  • Stay uptodate with Security Blogs and the like
    • Many of the attack vectors have generic relevance
  • Take the lid off, tinker with hardware
    • Lots of videos online to help or just watch

Make Hay while the Sun Shines

  • Save some money for rainy day
  • Keep networks Open
  • Even when you have a job

You’re fired … Now What? – In a moment

  • Don’t panic
    • Going out in a twitter storm won’t help anyone
  • It’s not personal
    • It is the position that is no longer needed, not you
  • If you think it an unfair dismissal, seek legal advice before signing anything
  • It is normal to feel rubbish
  • Beware of imposter syndrome
  • Try to keep 2-3 opportunities in the pipeline
  • Don’t assume people will remember you
    • It’s not personal, everyone gets busy
    • It’s okay to (politely naturally) follow up periodically
  • Keep search a little narrow for the first week or two
    • The expand widely
  • Balance take “something/everything” as better than waiting for your dream job

Dream Job

  • Power 9 CPU
    • 14nm process
    • 4GHz, 24 cores
    • 25km of wires
    • 8 billion transisters
    • 3900 official chips pins
    • ~19,000 connections from die to the pin


  • Part of a vibrant FOSS/OH community both hear and abroad
  • We have accomplished much
  • The most exciting (in both senses) things lie before us
  • We need all of you to be part at every level of the stack
  • Look forward to working with you…

Simon Lyall: 2018 – Day 3 – Session 3 – Booting

Wed, 2018-01-24 17:03

Securing the Linux boot process Matthew Garrett

  • Without boot security there is no other security
  • MBR Attacks – previously common, still work sometimes
  • Bootloader attacks – Seen in the wild
  • Malicious initrd attacks
    • RAM disk, does stuff like decrypt hard drive
    • Attack captures disk pass-shrase when typed in
  • How do we fix these?
    • UEFI Secure boot
    • Microsoft required in machines shipped after mid-2012
    • sign objects, firmware trusts some certs, boots things correctly signed
    • Problem solved! Nope
    • initrds are not signed
  • initrds
    • contain local changes
    • do a lot of security stuff
  • TPMs
    • devices on system motherboards
    • slow but inexpensive
    • Not under control of the CPU
    • Set of registers “platform configuration registers”, list of hashes of objects booted in boot process. Measurements
    • PCR can enforce things, stop boots if stuff doesn’t match
    • But stuff changes all the time, eg update firmware . Can brick machine
  • Microsoft to the resuce
    • Tie Secure boot into measured boot
    • Measure signing keys rather than the actual files themselves
    • But initrds are not signed
  • Systemd to the resuce
    • systemd boot stub (not the systemd boot loader)
    • Embed initrd and the kernel into a single image with a single signature
    • But initrds contain local information
    • End users should not be signing stuff
  • Kernel can be handed multiple initranfs images (via cpio)
    • each unpacked in turn
    • Each will over-write the previous one
    • configuration can over-written but the signed image, perhaps safely so that if config is changed, stuff fails
    • unpack config first, code second
  • Kernel command line is also security sensative
    • eg turn off iommu and dump RAM to extract keys
    • Have a secure command line turning on all security features, append on the what user sends
  • Proof of device state
    • Can show you are number after boot based on TPM. Can compare to 2FA device to make sure it is securely booted. Safe to type in passwords
  • Secure Provision of secrets
    • Know a remote machine is booted safely and not been subverted before sending it secret stuff.

Simon Lyall: 2018 – Day 3 – Session 2

Wed, 2018-01-24 17:03

Dealing with Contributor Overload Holden Karau

  • Developer Advocate at Google
  • Apache Spark, Contributor to BEAM

Some people from big projects, some from projects hoping to get big

  • Remember it’s okay to not fix it all
  • The fun of a small project
    • Simple communication
    • Aligned incentives
    • Easy to tell who knows what
    • Tight community
  • The fun of a parge project
    • More people to do the work
    • More impact and people thanking you
    • Lots of ideas and experiences
    • If $s then fun conferences
    • Get paid to work on it.
  • Is my project on Fire? or just lots of people on it.
    • Measurable
      • User questions spike
      • issue spike
    • Lesss measurable
      • Non-explicit stuff not being passed on
  • Classic Pipeline
    • Users -> contributors -> committers _> PMC
    • Each stage takes times
    • Very leaky pipeline, perhaps it leaks too much
  • With hyper-growth project can quickly go south
    • Committer:user ration can’t get too far out.
  • Even without hyper-growth: sadness
    • Same thing happens, but slower
  • Overload – Mitigation
    • You don’t have to answer everyone, this can be hard
    • Stackoverflow
    • Are your answers easily searchable
    • Knowledge base – “do you mean”
    • Take time and look for patterns in questions
    • Find people who like writing and get to to write a book
      • Don’t to for core committers, they will have no time for anything else
  • Issue overload
    • Try and get rid of duplicate tickets
    • Autoclose tickets – mixed results
  • How to deal with a spike
    • Raise the bar
    • Make it easier
    • Get Perl to solve the problem
  • Raising the bar
    • Reject trivial changes – reduces the onramp
    • Add weird system – more posts on how to contribute
  • What can Perl solve
    • Style guide
    • bot bot bots
    • make it faster to merge
    • Improve PR + reviewer notice
    • Can increase productivity
  • Add more committers
    • Takes time and effort
    • People can be shy
    • Make a guide for new folks to follow
    • Have a safe space for people to ask questions
  • Reduce overhead for contributing well
    • Have doc on how to contribute next to the code, not elsewhere that people have to search for.

The Open Sourcing of Infrastructure Elizabeth K. Joseph

The recent history of infrastructure

  • 1998
    • To make a server use Solaris or NT. But off a shelf
    • Linux seen as Cheap Unix
    • Lots of FUD

Got a Junior Sysadmin Job

  • 2004
    • Had to tell people the basics “What is free software?”  , “Using Open Source Web Applications to Produce Business Results”
    • Turning point LAMP stack
    • Flood of changes on how customers interacted with software over last
      • Reluctance to be locked-in by a vendor
      • Concerns of security
      • Ability to fix bugs ourselves
      • Innovation stifled when software developed in isloation

Last 10 years

  • Changes in how peopel interacted with software
    • Downtime un-acceptable
    • Reliance of scaling and automation
    • Servers as Pets -> cattle
    • Large focus on data

Open Source is now Ubiquitous

  • Even Microsoft is using it a lot and interacting with the community

Operations tools were not as Open Sourced

  • Configuration Management
    • puppet modules, chef playbooks
  • Open application definitions – juhu charms, DC?OS Universe Catalog
  • Full disk images
    • Dockerhub

The Cloud

  • Cloud is the new propriatory
  • EC2-only infrastructure
  • Questions you should ask beforehand
    • Is your service adhering to open standards or am I locked in?
    • Recourse if the company goes out of business
    • Does vendor have a history of communicating about downtime and security problems?
    • Does vendor responds to bugs and feature requests?
    • Will the vendor use data in a way I’m not comfortable with?
    • Initial costs may be low, but do you have a plan to handle long term, growing costs
  • Alternatives
    • Openstack, Kubernetes, Docker Swarm, DC/OS with Apache Mesos

Hybrid Cloud

  • Tooling can be platform agnostic
  • Hard but can be done

Francois Marier: LXC setup on Debian stretch

Wed, 2018-01-24 16:29

Here's how to setup LXC-based "chroots" on Debian stretch. While I wrote about this on Debian jessie, I had to make some networking changes for stretch and so here are the full steps that should work on stretch.

Start by installing (as root) the necessary packages:

apt install lxc libvirt-clients debootstrap Network setup

I decided to use the default /etc/lxc/default.conf configuration (no change needed here): = veth = lxcbr0 = up = 00:FF:AA:xx:xx:xx

That configuration requires that the veth kernel module be loaded. If you have any kinds of module-loading restrictions enabled, you probably need to add the following to /etc/modules and reboot:


Next, I had to make sure that the "guests" could connect to the outside world through the "host":

  1. Enable IPv4 forwarding by putting this in /etc/sysctl.conf:

  2. and then applying it using:

    sysctl -p
  3. Restart the network bridge:

    systemctl restart lxc-net.service
  4. and ensure that it's not blocked by the host firewall, by putting this in /etc/network/iptables.up.rules:

    -A FORWARD -d -m conntrack --ctstate RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT -A FORWARD -s -j ACCEPT -A INPUT -d -s -j ACCEPT -A INPUT -d -s -j ACCEPT -A INPUT -d -s -j ACCEPT
  5. and applying the rules using:

Creating a container

Creating a new container (in /var/lib/lxc/) is simple:

sudo MIRROR= lxc-create -n sid64 -t debian -- -r sid -a amd64

You can start or stop it like this:

sudo lxc-start -n sid64 sudo lxc-stop -n sid64 Connecting to a guest using ssh

The ssh server is configured to require pubkey-based authentication for root logins, so you'll need to log into the console:

sudo lxc-stop -n sid64 sudo lxc-start -n sid64 -F

Since the root password is randomly generated, you'll need to reset it before you can login as root:

sudo lxc-attach -n sid64 passwd

Then login as root and install a text editor inside the container because the root image doesn't have one by default:

apt install vim

then paste your public key in /root/.ssh/authorized_keys.

Then you can exit the console (using Ctrl+a q) and ssh into the container. You can find out what IP address the container received from DHCP by typing this command:

sudo lxc-ls --fancy Mounting your home directory inside a container

In order to have my home directory available within the container, I created a user account for myself inside the container and then added the following to the container config file (/var/lib/lxc/sid64/config):

lxc.mount.entry=/home/francois home/francois none bind 0 0

before restarting the container:

lxc-stop -n sid64 lxc-start -n sid64 Fixing locale errors

If you see a bunch of errors like these when you start your container:

perl: warning: Setting locale failed. perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings: LANGUAGE = (unset), LC_ALL = (unset), LANG = "fr_CA.utf8" are supported and installed on your system. perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").

then log into the container as root and use:

dpkg-reconfigure locales

to enable the same locales as the ones you have configured in the host.

If you see these errors while reconfiguring the locales package:

Generating locales (this might take a while)... en_US.UTF-8...cannot change mode of new locale archive: No such file or directory done fr_CA.UTF-8...cannot change mode of new locale archive: No such file or directory done Generation complete.

and see the following dmesg output on the host:

[235350.947808] audit: type=1400 audit(1441664940.224:225): apparmor="DENIED" operation="chmod" info="Failed name lookup - deleted entry" error=-2 profile="/usr/bin/lxc-start" name="/usr/lib/locale/locale-archive.WVNevc" pid=21651 comm="localedef" requested_mask="w" denied_mask="w" fsuid=0 ouid=0

then AppArmor is interfering with the locale-gen binary and the work-around I found is to temporarily shutdown AppArmor on the host:

lxc-stop -n sid64 systemctl stop apparmor lxc-start -n sid64

and then start up it later once the locales have been updated:

lxc-stop -n sid64 systemctl start apparmor lxc-start -n sid64 AppArmor support

If you are running AppArmor, your container probably won't start until you add the following to the container config (/var/lib/lxc/sid64/config):

lxc.aa_allow_incomplete = 1

Simon Lyall: 2018 – Day 3 – Session 1 – k8s @ home and bad buses

Wed, 2018-01-24 13:03

How to run Kubernetes on your spare hardware at home, and save the world Angus Lees

  • Mainframe ->
  • PC ->
  • Rackmount PC
    • Back the rackmount PC even with built-in redundancy will still fail. Or the location will go offline, or your data spreads across multiple machines
  • Since you need to have distributed/redundancy anyway. New model (2005). Grid computing. Clever software, dumb hardware. Loosely coupled servers
    • Libraries > RPC / Microservices
    • Threadpool -> hadoop
    • SQL -> key/store
    • NFS -> Object store
    • In-place upgrades -> “Immutable” image-based build from scratch
  • Computers in clouds
    • No cases. No redundant Power, journaling on filesystems turned off, etc
  • Everything is in clouds – Secondary effects
    • Corperate driven
    • Apache license over GPL
    • Centralised services rather than federated protocols
    • Profit-driven rather than scrating itches
  • Summary
    • Problem
      • Distributed Systems hard to configure
      • Solutions scale down poorly
      • Most homes don’t have racks of servers
    • Implication
      • Home Free Software “stuck” at single-machine architecture
  • Kubernetes (lots of stuff, but I use it already so just doing unique bits)
    • “Unix Process as a service”
    • Inverts the stack. Data is important then app. Kernel and Hardware unimportant.
    • Easy upgrades, everything is an upgrade
    • Declarative API , command line interface
  • “We’ve conducted this experiment for decades now, and I have news for you, Hardware fails”

Hardware at Home

  • Raid used to be “enterprise” now normal for home
  • Elastic compute for home too
  • Kubernetes for Home
    • Budget $100
      • ARM master nodes
      • Mixed architecture
    • Assume single layer-2 home ethernet
    • Worker nodes – old $500 laptops
      • x86-64
      • CoreOS
      • Broken screens, dead batteries
    • 3 * $30 Banana pis
      • Raspberry Pi2
      • armv7a
      • containOS
    • Persistentvolumes
      • NFS mount from RAID server
    • Service – keepalived-vip
    • Ingress
      • keepalived and nginx-ingress , letsEncrypt
      • Wildcard DNS
    • Status
      • Works!
      • Printing works
      • Install: PXE boot and run coreos-install
    • Status – ungood
      • Banana PIs a bit too slow.

Is the 370 the worst bus route in Sydney? Katie Bell

  • The 370 bus
    • Goes UNSW and Sydney University. Goes around the city
  • If bus runs every 15 minutes, you should not be able to see 3 at once
  • Newspaper articles and Facebook group about how bad it is.
  • Two Questions
    • Bus privitisation better or worse
    • Is the 370 really the worst
  • Data provided
    • Lots of stuff but nothing the reliability
    • But they do have realtime data eg for the Tripetime app (done via a 3rd party)
    • They have a API and Key with standard format via GTFS
  • But they only publish “realtime” data, not the old data
    • So collected the realtime data, once a minute for 4 months
    • 557 GB
  • Format
    • zipfile of csv files
    • IDs sometimes ephemeral
    • Had to match timetable data and realtime data
    • Data had to be tidied up – lots
  • Processing realtime data
    • Download 1 minute
    • Parse
    • Match each of around ~7000 trips in timetable (across all of NSW)
    • Write ~20000 realtime updates to the DB
    • Running 5 EC2 instances at leak
    • Writing up to 40MB/s to the DB
  • Is the 370 the worst?
    • Define “worst”
    • Found NSW definition of what an on-time bus is.
    • Now more than 5:59 late or 1:59 early. Measured start/middle/end
    • Victoria definition strictor
    • She defined:
      • Early: more than 2min early
      • On time: 2m early – 5 min late
      • late more than 5m late
      • Very late – more thna 20m late
    • Across all trips
      • 3.7 million trips
      • On time 31%
      • More than 20m late 2.86%
    • Best routes
      • Nightime buses
      • Outside of Sydney
      • Shorter routes
      • 86% – 97% or better
    • Worst
      • Less than 5% on time
      • Longer routes
      • 370 is the 22nd worst
        • 8.79% on time
    • Worst routes ( percent > 20 min late)
      • 23% of 370 trips (6th worst)
      • Lots of Wollongong
    • Worst agencies
      • No obvious difference between agencies and private companies
    • Conclusion
      • Privatisation could go either way
      • 370 is close to the worst (277 could be worse) in Sydney


  • Used Spot instances to keep cost down
  • $200 month on AWS
  • Buses better/worse according to time? Now checked yet
  • Wanted to calculate the “wait time” , not done yet.
  • Another feed of bus locations and some other data out there too.
  • Lots of other questions

Simon Lyall: 2018 – Day 3 – Keynote – Karen Sandler

Wed, 2018-01-24 11:03

Executive director of Software Freedom Conservancy

Previously spoke that LCA 2012 about closed-source software on her heart implant. Since then has pivoted career to more open-source advocacy in career.

  • DMCA exemption for medical device research
  • When you ask your doctor about safety of devices you sound like a conspiracy theorist
  • Various problems have been highlighted, some progress
  • Some companies addressing them

Initially published paper highlighting problem without saying she had the device

  • Got pushback from groups who thought she was scaremongering
  • Companies thinking about liability issues
  • After told story in 2012 things improved

Had to get new device recently.

  • Needed this disabled since her jobs pisses off hackers sometimes
  • All manufacturers said they could not disable wireless access
  • Finally found a single model that could be disabled made by a European manufacturer


Note: This is a quick summary, Lots more covered but hard to cover. Video should be good. Her slides were broken though much of the talk be she still delivered great talk.

Linux Users of Victoria (LUV) Announce: LUV Main February 2018 Meeting: report

Wed, 2018-01-24 01:05
Start: Feb 6 2018 18:30 End: Feb 6 2018 20:30 Start: Feb 6 2018 18:30 End: Feb 6 2018 20:30 Location:  Mail Exchange Hotel, 688 Bourke St, Melbourne VIC 3000 Link:


Tuesday, February 6, 2018
6:30 PM to 8:30 PM
Mail Exchange Hotel
688 Bourke St, Melbourne VIC 3000


  • Russell Coker and others, LCA conference report

Russell Coker has done lots of Linux development over the years, mostly involved with Debian.

Mail Exchange Hotel, 688 Bourke St, Melbourne VIC 3000

Food and drinks will be available on premises.

Linux Users of Victoria is a subcommittee of Linux Australia.

February 6, 2018 - 18:30

Simon Lyall: 2018 – Day 2 – Keynote – Matthew Todd

Tue, 2018-01-23 11:03

Collaborating with Everybody: Open Source Drug Discovery

  • Term used is a bit undefined. Open Source, Free Drugs?
  • First Open Source Project – Praziquantel
    • Molecule has 2 mirror image forms. One does the job, other tastes awful. Pills were previously a mix
    • Project to just have pill with the single form
      • Created discussion
      • Online Lab Notebook
      • 75% of contributions were from private sector (especially Syncom)
      • Ended up finding a approach that worked, different from what was originally proposed from feedback.
      • Similar method found by private company that was also doing the work
  • Conventional Drug discovery
    • Find drug that kills something bad – Hit
    • Test it and see if it is suitable – Led
    • 13,500 molecules in public domain that kill maleria parasite
  • 6 Laws of Open Scrience
    • All data is open and all ideas are shared
    • Anyone can take part at any level of the project
  • Openness increasing seen as a key
  • Open Source Maleria
    • 4 campaigns
    • Work on a molecule, park it when doesn’t seem promising
    • But all data is still public
  • What it actually is
    • Electronic lab book (80% of scientists still use paper)
    • Using Labtrove, changing to labarchives
    • Everything you do goes up every day
    • Todo list
      • Tried stuff, ended up using issue list on github
      • Not using most other github stuff
    • Data on a Google Sheet
    • Light Website, twitter feed
  • Lab vs Code
  • Have a promising molecule – works well in mice
    • Would probably be a patentable state
    • Not sure yet exactly how it works
  • Competition – Predictive model
    • Lots of solutions submitted, not good enough to use
    • Hopeful a model will be created
  • Tried a a known-working molecule from elsewhere, but couldn’t get it to work
    • This is out in the open. Lots of discussion
  • School group able to recreate Daraprim, a high-priced US drug
  • Public Domain science is now accepted for publications
  • Need to to make computers understand molecule digram and convert to representative format which can then be search one.
  • Missing
    • Automated links to databases in tickets
    • Basic web page stuff, auto-porting of data, newsletter, become non-profit, stickers
    • Stuff is not folded back into the Wiki
  • OS Mycetoma – New Project
    • Fungus with no treatment
    • Working on possible molecule to treat
  • Some ideas on how to get products created this way to market – eg “data exclusivity”


James Morris: LCA 2018 Kernel Miniconf – SELinux Namespacing Slides

Mon, 2018-01-22 21:01

I gave a short talk on SELinux namespacing today at the Kernel Miniconf in Sydney — the slides from the talk are here:

This is a work in progress to which I’ve been contributing, following on from initial discussions at Linux Plumbers 2017.

In brief, there’s a growing need to be able to provide SELinux confinement within containers: typically, SELinux appears disabled within a container on Fedora-based systems, as a workaround for a lack of container support.  Underlying this is a requirement to provide per-namespace SELinux instances,  where each container has its own SELinux policy and private kernel SELinux APIs.

A prototype for SELinux namespacing was developed by Stephen Smalley, who released the code via  There were and still are many TODO items.  I’ve since been working on providing namespacing support to on-disk inode labels, which are represented by security xattrs.  See the v0.2 patch post for more details.

Much of this work will be of interest to other LSMs such as Smack, and many architectural and technical issues remain to be solved.  For those interested in this work, please see the slides, which include a couple of overflow pages detailing some known but as yet unsolved issues (supplied by Stephen Smalley).

I anticipate discussions on this and related topics (LSM stacking, core namespaces) later in the year at Plumbers and the Linux Security Summit(s), at least.

The session was live streamed — I gather a standalone video will be available soon!

ETA: the video is up! See:

Simon Lyall: 2018 – Day 1 – Session 3 – Developers, Developers Miniconf

Mon, 2018-01-22 19:03

Beyond Web 2.0 Russell Keith-Magee

  • Django guy
  • Back in 2005 when Django first came out
    • Web was fairly simple, click something and something happened
    • model, views, templates, forms, url routing
  • The web c 2016
    • Rich client
    • API
    • mobile clients, native apps
    • realtime channels
  • Rich client frameworks
    • reponse to increased complexity that is required
    • Complex client-side and complex server-side code
  • Isomorphic Javascript development
    • Same code on both client and server
    • Only works with javascript really
    • hacks to work with other languages but not great
  • Isomorphic javascript development
    • Requirements
    • Need something in-between server and browser
    • Was once done with Java based web clients
    • model, view, controller
  • API-first development
  • How does it work with high-latency or no-connection?
  • Part of the controller and some of the model needed in the client
    • If you have python on the server you need python on the client
    • brython, skulp, pypy.js
    • <script type=”text/pyton”>
    • Note: Not phyton being compiled into javascript. Python is run in the browser
    • Need to download full python interpreter though (500k-15M)
    • Fairly fast
  • Do we need a full python interpreter?
    • Maybe something just to run the bytecode
    • Batavia
    • Javascript implementation of python virtual machine
    • 10KB
    • Downside – slower than cpython on the same machine
  • WASM
    • Like assembly but for the web
    • Benefits from 70y of experience with assembly languages
    • Close to Cpython speed
    • But
      • Not quite on browsers
      • No garbage collection
      • Cannot manipulate DOM
      • But both coming soon
  • Example:
  • But “possible isn’t enough”

Using “old skool” Free tools to easily publish API documentation – Alec Clew

  • You API is successful if people are using it
  • High Quality and easy to use
  • Provide great docs (might cut down on support tickets)
  • Who are you writing for?
    • Might not have english as first language
    • New to the API
    • Might have different tech expertise (different languages)
    • Different tooling
  • Can be hard work
  • Make better docs
    • Use diagrams
    • Show real code (complete and working)
  • Keep your sentence simple
  • Keep the docs current
  • Treat documentation like code
    • Fix bugs
    • add features
    • refactor
    • automatic builds
    • Cross platform support
    • “Everything” is text and under version control
  • Demo using pandoc
  • Tools
  • pandoc, plantuml, Graphviz, M4, make, base/sed/python/etc


Lightning Talks

  • Nic – Alt attribute
    • need to be added to images
    • Don’t have alts when images as links
  • Vaibhav Sager – Travis-CI
    • Builds codes
    • Can build websites
    • Uses to build Resume
    • Build presentations
  • Steve Ellis
    • Openshift Origin Demo
  • Alec Clews
    • Python vs C vs PHP vs Java vs Go for small case study
    • Implemented simple xmlrpc client in 5 languages
    • Python and Go were straightforward, each had one simple trick (40-50 lines)
    • C was 100 lines. A lot harder. Conversions, etc all manual
    • PHP wasn’t too hard. easier in modern vs older PHP
  • Daurn
    • Lua
    • – Lua in the browser
  • Alistair
    • How not to docker ( don’t trust the Internet)
    • Don’t run privileged
    • Don’t expose your docker socket
    • Don’t use host network mode
    • Don’t where your code is FROM
    • Make sure your kernel on your host is secure
  • Daniel
    • Put proxy in front of the docker socket
    • You can use it to limit what no-priv users with socket access to docker port can do


Simon Lyall: 2018 – Day 1 – Session 2

Mon, 2018-01-22 17:03

Manage all your tasks with TaskWarrior Paul ‘@pjf’ Fenwick

  • Lots of task management software out there
    • Tried lots
    • Doesn’t like proprietary ones, but unable to add features he wants
    • Likes command line
  • Disclaimer: “Most systems do not work for most people”
  • TaskWarrior
    • Lots of features
    • Learning cliff

Intro to TaskWarrior

  • Command line
  • Simple level can be just a todo list
  • Can add tags
    • unstructured many to many
    • Added just put putting “+whatever” on command
    • Great for searching
    • Can put all people or all types of jobs togeather
  • Meta Tags
    • Automatic date related (eg due this week or today)
  • Project
    • A bunch of tasks
    • Can be strung togeather
    • eg Travel project, projects for each trip inside them
  • Contexts (show only some projects and tasks)
    • Work tasks
    • Tasks for just a client
    • Home stuff
  • Annotation (Taking notes)
    • $ task 31 annotate “extra stuff”
    • has an auto timestamp
    • show by default, or just show a count of them
  • Tasks associated with dates
    • “wait”
    • Don’t show task until a date (approx)
    • Hid a task for an amount of time
    • Scheduled tasks urgency boasted at specific date
  • Until
    • delete a task after a certain date
  • Relative to other tasks
    • eg book flights 30 days before a conference
    • good for scripting, create a whole bunch of related tasks for a project
  • due dates
    • All sorts of things give (see above) gives tasks higher priority
    • Tasks can be manually changed
  • Tools and plugins
    • Taskopen – Opens resources in annotations (eg website, editor)
  • Working with others
    • Bugworrier – interfaces with github trello, gmail, jira, trac, bugzilla and lots of things
    • Lots of settings
    • Keeps all in sync
  • Lots of extra stuff
    • Paul updates his shell prompt to remind him things are busy
  • Also has
    • Graphical reports: burndown, calendar
    • Hooks: Eg hooks to run all sort of stuff
    • Online Sync
    • Android client
    • Web client
  • Reminder it has a steep learning curve.

Love thy future self: making your systems ops-friendly Matt Palmer

  • Instrumentation
  • Instrumenting incoming requests
    • Count of the total number of requests (broken down by requestor)
    • Count of reponses (broken down by request/error)
    • How long it took (broken down by sucess/errors
    • How many right now
  • Get number of in-progress requests, average time etc
  • Instrumenting outgoing requests
    • For each downstream component
    • Number of request sent
    • how many reponses we’ve received (broken down by success/err)
    • How long it too to get the response (broken down by request/ error)
    • How many right now
  • Gives you
    • incoming/outgoing ratio
    • error rate = problem is downstream
  • Logs
    • Logs cost tends to be more than instrumentation
  • Three Log priorities
    • Error
      • Need a full stack trace
      • Add info don’t replace it
      • Capture all the relivant variables
      • Structure
    • Information
      • Startup messages
      • Basic request info
      • Sampling
    • Debug
      • printf debugging at webcale
      • tag with module/method
      • unique id for each request
      • late-bind log data if possible.
      • Allow selective activation at runtime (feature flag, special url, signals)
    • Summary
      • Visbility required
      • Fault isolation


Simon Lyall: 2018 – Day 1 – Session 1 – Kernel Miniconf

Mon, 2018-01-22 13:03

Look out for what’s in the security pipeline – Casey Schaufler

Old Protocols

  • SeLinux
    • No much changing
  • Smack
    • Network configuration improvements and catchup with how the netlable code wants things to be done.
  • AppArmor
    • Labeled objects
    • Networking
    • Policy stacking

New Security Modules

  • Some peopel think existing security modules don’t work well with what they are doing
  • Landlock
    • eBPF extension to SECMARK
    • Kills processes when it goes outside of what it should be doing
    • General purpose process tags
    • Fro application use ( app can decide what it wants based on tags, not something external to the process enforcing things )
  • HardChroot
    • Limits on chroot jail
    • mount restrictions
  • Safename
    • Prevents creation of unsafe files names
    • start, middle or end characters
  • SimpleFlow
    • Tracks tainted data

Security Module Stacking

  • Problems with incompatibility of module labeling
  • People want different security policy and mechanism in containers than from the base OS
  • Netfilter problems between smack and Apparmor


  • Containers are a little bit undefined right now. Not a kernel construct
  • But while not kernel constructs, need to work with and support them


  • Printing pointers (eg in syslog)
  • Usercopy


Ben Martin: 4cm thick wood cnc project: shelf

Sun, 2018-01-21 23:02
The lighter wood is about 4cm thick. Both of the sides are cut from a single plank of timber which left the feet with a slight weak point at the back. Given a larger bit of timber I would have tapered the legs outward from the back more gradually. But the design is restricted by the timber at hand.

The shelves are plywood which turned out fairly well after a few coats of poly. I knocked the extreme sharp edges of the ply so its a hurt a little rather than a lot if you accidentally poke the edge. This is a mixed machine and human build, the back of the plywood that meets the uprights was knocked off using a bandsaw.

Being able to CNC thick timber like this opens up more bold designs. Currently I have to use a 1/2 inch bit to get this reach. Stay tuned for more CNC timber fun!

Russell Coker: More About the Thinkpad X301

Tue, 2018-01-16 15:02

Last month I blogged about the Thinkpad X301 I got from a rubbish pile [1]. One thing I didn’t realise when writing that post is that the X301 doesn’t have the keyboard light that the T420 has. With the T420 I could press the bottom left (FN) and top right (PgUp from memory) keys on the keyboard to turn a light on the keyboard. This is really good for typing at night. While I can touch type the small keyboard on a laptop makes it a little difficult so the light is a feature I found useful. I wrote my review of the X301 before having to use it at night.

Another problem I noticed is that it crashes after running Memtest86+ for between 30 minutes and 4 hours. Memtest86+ doesn’t report any memory errors, the system just entirely locks up. I have 2 DIMMs for it (2G and 4G), I tried installing them in both orders, and I tried with each of them in the first slot (the system won’t boot if only the second slot is filled). Nothing changed. Now it is possible that this is something that might not happen in real use. For example it might only happen due to heat when the system is under sustained load which isn’t something I planned for that laptop. I would discard a desktop system that had such a problem because I get lots of free desktop PCs, but I’m prepared to live with a laptop that has such a problem to avoid paying for another laptop.

Last night the laptop battery suddenly stopped working entirely. I had it unplugged for about 5 minutes when it abruptly went off (no flashing light to warn that the battery was low or anything). Now when I plug it in the battery light flashes orange. A quick Google search indicates that this might mean that a fuse inside the battery pack has blown or that there might be a problem with the system board. Replacing the system board is much more than the laptop is worth and even replacing the battery will probably cost more than it’s worth. Previously bought a Thinkpad T420 at auction because it didn’t cost much more than getting a new battery and PSU for a T61 [2] and I expect I can find a similar deal if I poll the auction sites for a while.

Using an X series Thinkpad has been a good experience and I’ll definitely consider an X series for my next laptop. My previous history of laptops involved going from ones with a small screen that were heavy and clunky (what was available with 90’s technology and cost less than a car) to ones that had a large screen and were less clunky but still heavy. I hadn’t tried small and light with technology from the last decade, it’s something I could really get used to!

By today’s standards the X301 is deficient in a number of ways. It has 64G of storage (the same as my most recent phones) which isn’t much for software development, 6G of RAM which isn’t too bad but is small by today’s standards (16G is a common factory option nowadays), a 1440*900 screen which looks bad in any comparison (less than the last 3 phones I’ve owned), and a slow CPU. No two of these limits would be enough to make me consider replacing that laptop. Even with the possibility of crashing under load it was still a useful system. But the lack of a usable battery in combination with all the other issues makes the entire system unsuitable for my needs. I would be very happy to use a fast laptop with a high resolution screen even without a battery, but not with this list of issues.

Next week I’m going to a conference and there’s no possibility of buying a new laptop before then. So for a week when I need to use a laptop a lot I will have a sub-standard laptop.

It really sucks to have a laptop develop a problem that makes me want to replace it so soon after I got it.

Related posts:

  1. I Just Bought a new Thinkpad and the Lenovo Web Site Sucks I’ve just bought a Thinkpad T61 at auction for $AU796....
  2. Thinkpad X301 Another Broken Thinkpad A few months ago I wrote a...
  3. thinkpad back from repair On Tuesday my Thinkpad was taken for service to fix...

Jonathan Adamczewski: Priorities for my team

Wed, 2018-01-10 17:03

(unthreaded from here)

During the day, I’m a Lead of a group of programmers. We’re responsible for a range of tools and tech used by others at the company for making games.

I have a list of the my priorities (and some related questions) of things that I think are important for us to be able to do well as individuals, and as a team:

  1. Treat people with respect. Value their time, place high value on their well-being, and start with the assumption that they have good intentions
    (“People” includes yourself: respect yourself, value your own time and well-being, and have confidence in your good intentions.)
  2. When solving a problem, know the user and understand their needs.
    • Do you understand the problem(s) that need to be solved? (it’s easy to make assumptions)
    • Have you spoken to the user and listened to their perspective? (it’s easy to solve the wrong problem)
    • Have you explored the specific constraints of the problem by asking questions like:
      • Is this part needed? (it’s easy to over-reach)
      • Is there a satisfactory simpler alternative? (actively pursue simplicity)
      • What else will be needed? (it’s easy to overlook details)
    • Have your discussed your proposed solution with users, and do they understand what you intend to do? (verify, and pursue buy-in)
    • Do you continue to meet regularly with users? Do they know you? Do they believe that you’re working for their benefit? (don’t under-estimate the value of trust)
  3. Have a clear understanding of what you are doing.
    • Do you understand the system you’re working in? (it’s easy to make assumptions)
    • Have you read the documentation and/or code? (set yourself up to succeed with whatever is available)
    • For code:
      • Have you tried to modify the code? (pull a thread; see what breaks)
      • Can you explain how the code works to another programmer in a convincing way? (test your confidence)
      • Can you explain how the code works to a non-programmer?
  4. When trying to solve a problem, debug aggressively and efficiently.
    • Does the bug need to be fixed? (see 1)
    • Do you understand how the system works? (see 2)
    • Is there a faster way to debug the problem? Can you change code or data to cause the problem to occur more quickly and reliably? (iterate as quickly as you can, fix the bug, and move on)
    • Do you trust your own judgement? (debug boldly, have confidence in what you have observed, make hypotheses and test them)
  5. Pursue excellence in your work.
    • How are you working to be better understood? (good communication takes time and effort)
    • How are you working to better understand others? (don’t assume that others will pursue you with insights)
    • Are you responding to feedback with enthusiasm to improve your work? (pursue professionalism)
    • Are you writing high quality, easy to understand, easy to maintain code? How do you know? (continue to develop your technical skills)
    • How are you working to become an expert and industry leader with the technologies and techniques you use every day? (pursue excellence in your field)
    • Are you eager to improve (and fix) systems you have worked on previously? (take responsibility for your work)

The list was created for discussion with the group, and as an effort to articulate my own expectations in a way that will help my team understand me.

Composing this has been useful exercise for me as a lead, and definitely worthwhile for the group. If you’ve never tried writing down your own priorities, values, and/or assumptions, I encourage you to try it :)

David Rowe: Engage the Silent Drive

Mon, 2018-01-08 09:04

I’ve been busy electrocuting my boat – here are our first impressions of the Torqueedo Cruise 2.0T on the water.

About 2 years ago I decided to try sailing, so I bought a second hand Hartley TS16; a popular small “trailer sailor” here in Australia. Since then I have been getting out once every week, having some very pleasant days with friends and family, and even at times by myself. Sailing really takes you away from everything else in the world. It keeps you busy as you are always pulling a rope or adjusting this and that, and is physically very active as you are clambering all over the boat. Mentally there is a lot to learn, and I started as a complete nautical noob.

Sailing is so quiet and peaceful, you get propelled by the wind using aerodynamics and it feels like like magic. However this is marred by the noise of outboard motors, which are typically used at the start and end of the day to get the boat to the point where it can sail. They are also useful to get you out of trouble in high seas/wind, or when the wind dies. I often use the motor to “un hit” Australia when I accidentally lodge myself on a sand bar (I have a lot of accidents like that).

The boat came with an ancient 2 stroke which belched smoke and noise. After about 12 months this motor suffered a terminal melt down (impeller failure and over heated) so it was replaced with a modern 5HP Honda 4-stroke, which is much quieter and very fuel efficient.

My long term goal was to “electrocute” the boat and replace the infernal combustion outboard engine with an electric motor and battery pack. I recently bit the bullet and obtained a Torqeedo Cruise 2kW outboard from Eco Boats Australia.

My friend Matt and I tested the motor today and are really thrilled. Matt is an experienced Electrical Engineer and sailor so was an ideal companion for the first run of the Torqueedo.

Torqueedo Cruise 2.0 First Impressions

It’s silent – incredibly so. Just a slight whine conducted from the motor/gearbox pod beneath the water. The sound of water flowing around the boat is louder!

The acceleration is impressive, better than the 4-stroke. Make sure you sit down. That huge, low RPM prop and loads of torque. We settled on 1000W, experimenting with other power levels.

The throttle control is excellent, you can dial up any speed you want. This made parking (mooring) very easy compared to the 4-stroke which is more of a “single speed” motor (idles at 3 knots, 4-5 knots top speed) and is unwieldy for parking.

It’s fit for purpose. This is not a low power “trolling” motor, it is every bit as powerful as the modern Honda 5HP 4-stroke. We did a A/B test and obtained the same top speed (5 knots) in the same conditions (wind/tide/stretch of water). We used it with 15 knot winds and 1m seas and it was the real deal – pushing the boat exactly where we wanted to go with authority. This is not a compromise solution. The Torqueedo shows internal combustion who’s house it is.

We had some fun sneaking up on kayaks at low power, getting to within a few metres before they heard us. Other boaties saw us gliding past with the sails down and couldn’t work out how we were moving!

A hidden feature is Azipod steering – it steers through more than 270 degrees. You can reverse without reverse gear, and we did “donuts” spinning on the keel!

Some minor issues: Unlike the Honda the the Torqueedo doesn’t tilt complete out of the water when sailing, leaving some residual drag from the motor/propeller pod. It also has to be removed from the boat for trailering, due to insufficient road clearance.

Walk Through

Here are the two motors with the boat out of the water:

It’s quite a bit longer than the Honda, mainly due to the enormous prop. The centres of the two props are actually only 7cm apart in height above ground. I had some concerns about ground clearance, both when trailering and also in the water. I have enough problems hitting Australia and like the way my boat can float in just 30cm of water. I discussed this with my very helpful Torqueedo dealer, Chris. He said tests with short and long version suggested this wasn’t a problem and in fact the “long” version provided better directional control. More water on top of the prop is a good thing. They recommend 50mm minimum, I have about 100mm.

To get started I made up a 24V battery pack using a plastic tub and 8 x 3.2V 100AH Lithium cells, left over from my recent EV battery upgrade. The cells are in varying conditions; I doubt any of them have 100AH capacity after 8 years of being hammered in my EV. On the day we ran for nearly 2 hours before one of the weaker cells dipped beneath 2.5V. I’ll sort through my stock of second hand cells some time to optimise the pack.

The pack plus motor weighs 41kg, the 5HP Honda plus 5l petrol 32kg. At low power (600W, 3.5 knots), this 2.5kWHr pack will give us a range of 14 nm or 28km. Plenty – on a huge days sailing we cover 40km, of which just 5km would be on motor.

All that power on board is handy too, for example the load of a fridge would be trivial compared to the motor, and a 100W HF radio no problem. So now I can quaff ice-cold sparkling shiraz or a nice beer, while having an actual conversation and not choking on exhaust fumes!

Here’s Matt taking us for a test drive, not much to the Torqueedo above the water:

For a bit of fun we ran both motors (maybe 10HP equivalent) and hit 7 knots, almost getting the Hartley up on the plane. Does this make it a Hybrid boat?


We are in love. This is the future of boating. For sale – one 5HP Honda 4-stroke.

Linux Users of Victoria (LUV) Announce: Annual Penguin Picnic, January 28, 2018

Sun, 2018-01-07 19:03
Start: Jan 28 2018 12:00 End: Jan 28 2018 18:00 Start: Jan 28 2018 12:00 End: Jan 28 2018 18:00 Location:  Infoxchange, 33 Elizabeth St. Richmond


The Linux Users of Victoria Annual Penguin Picnic will be held on Sunday, January 28, starting at 12 noon at the Yarra Bank Reserve, Hawthorn.

Due to the predicted extreme hot weather on Sunday, the LUV committee has decided to change to an indoor picnic with dips, cheeses, cured meats, fruits, cakes, icecreams and icy poles, cool drinks, etc. instead of a BBQ.  The meeting will now be held at our regular workshop venue, Infoxchange at 33 Elizabeth St. Richmond, right by Victoria Parade and North Richmond railway station.

LUV would like to acknowledge Infoxchange for the Richmond venue.

Linux Users of Victoria Inc., is a subcommitee of Linux Australia.

January 28, 2018 - 12:00

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