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Simon Lyall: 2018 – Day 3 – Session 1 – k8s @ home and bad buses

Wed, 2018-01-24 12:03

How to run Kubernetes on your spare hardware at home, and save the world Angus Lees

  • Mainframe ->
  • PC ->
  • Rackmount PC
    • Back the rackmount PC even with built-in redundancy will still fail. Or the location will go offline, or your data spreads across multiple machines
  • Since you need to have distributed/redundancy anyway. New model (2005). Grid computing. Clever software, dumb hardware. Loosely coupled servers
    • Libraries > RPC / Microservices
    • Threadpool -> hadoop
    • SQL -> key/store
    • NFS -> Object store
    • In-place upgrades -> “Immutable” image-based build from scratch
  • Computers in clouds
    • No cases. No redundant Power, journaling on filesystems turned off, etc
  • Everything is in clouds – Secondary effects
    • Corperate driven
    • Apache license over GPL
    • Centralised services rather than federated protocols
    • Profit-driven rather than scrating itches
  • Summary
    • Problem
      • Distributed Systems hard to configure
      • Solutions scale down poorly
      • Most homes don’t have racks of servers
    • Implication
      • Home Free Software “stuck” at single-machine architecture
  • Kubernetes (lots of stuff, but I use it already so just doing unique bits)
    • “Unix Process as a service”
    • Inverts the stack. Data is important then app. Kernel and Hardware unimportant.
    • Easy upgrades, everything is an upgrade
    • Declarative API , command line interface
  • “We’ve conducted this experiment for decades now, and I have news for you, Hardware fails”

Hardware at Home

  • Raid used to be “enterprise” now normal for home
  • Elastic compute for home too
  • Kubernetes for Home
    • Budget $100
      • ARM master nodes
      • Mixed architecture
    • Assume single layer-2 home ethernet
    • Worker nodes – old $500 laptops
      • x86-64
      • CoreOS
      • Broken screens, dead batteries
    • 3 * $30 Banana pis
      • Raspberry Pi2
      • armv7a
      • containOS
    • Persistentvolumes
      • NFS mount from RAID server
    • Service – keepalived-vip
    • Ingress
      • keepalived and nginx-ingress , letsEncrypt
      • Wildcard DNS
    • Status
      • Works!
      • Printing works
      • Install: PXE boot and run coreos-install
    • Status – ungood
      • Banana PIs a bit too slow.

Is the 370 the worst bus route in Sydney? Katie Bell

  • The 370 bus
    • Goes UNSW and Sydney University. Goes around the city
  • If bus runs every 15 minutes, you should not be able to see 3 at once
  • Newspaper articles and Facebook group about how bad it is.
  • Two Questions
    • Bus privitisation better or worse
    • Is the 370 really the worst
  • Data provided
    • Lots of stuff but nothing the reliability
    • But they do have realtime data eg for the Tripetime app (done via a 3rd party)
    • They have a API and Key with standard format via GTFS
  • But they only publish “realtime” data, not the old data
    • So collected the realtime data, once a minute for 4 months
    • 557 GB
  • Format
    • zipfile of csv files
    • IDs sometimes ephemeral
    • Had to match timetable data and realtime data
    • Data had to be tidied up – lots
  • Processing realtime data
    • Download 1 minute
    • Parse
    • Match each of around ~7000 trips in timetable (across all of NSW)
    • Write ~20000 realtime updates to the DB
    • Running 5 EC2 instances at leak
    • Writing up to 40MB/s to the DB
  • Is the 370 the worst?
    • Define “worst”
    • Found NSW definition of what an on-time bus is.
    • Now more than 5:59 late or 1:59 early. Measured start/middle/end
    • Victoria definition strictor
    • She defined:
      • Early: more than 2min early
      • On time: 2m early – 5 min late
      • late more than 5m late
      • Very late – more thna 20m late
    • Across all trips
      • 3.7 million trips
      • On time 31%
      • More than 20m late 2.86%
    • Best routes
      • Nightime buses
      • Outside of Sydney
      • Shorter routes
      • 86% – 97% or better
    • Worst
      • Less than 5% on time
      • Longer routes
      • 370 is the 22nd worst
        • 8.79% on time
    • Worst routes ( percent > 20 min late)
      • 23% of 370 trips (6th worst)
      • Lots of Wollongong
    • Worst agencies
      • No obvious difference between agencies and private companies
    • Conclusion
      • Privatisation could go either way
      • 370 is close to the worst (277 could be worse) in Sydney


  • Used Spot instances to keep cost down
  • $200 month on AWS
  • Buses better/worse according to time? Now checked yet
  • Wanted to calculate the “wait time” , not done yet.
  • Another feed of bus locations and some other data out there too.
  • Lots of other questions

Simon Lyall: 2018 – Day 3 – Keynote – Karen Sandler

Wed, 2018-01-24 10:03

Executive director of Software Freedom Conservancy

Previously spoke that LCA 2012 about closed-source software on her heart implant. Since then has pivoted career to more open-source advocacy in career.

  • DMCA exemption for medical device research
  • When you ask your doctor about safety of devices you sound like a conspiracy theorist
  • Various problems have been highlighted, some progress
  • Some companies addressing them

Initially published paper highlighting problem without saying she had the device

  • Got pushback from groups who thought she was scaremongering
  • Companies thinking about liability issues
  • After told story in 2012 things improved

Had to get new device recently.

  • Needed this disabled since her jobs pisses off hackers sometimes
  • All manufacturers said they could not disable wireless access
  • Finally found a single model that could be disabled made by a European manufacturer


Note: This is a quick summary, Lots more covered but hard to cover. Video should be good. Her slides were broken though much of the talk be she still delivered great talk.

Linux Users of Victoria (LUV) Announce: LUV Main February 2018 Meeting: report

Wed, 2018-01-24 00:05
Start: Feb 6 2018 18:30 End: Feb 6 2018 20:30 Start: Feb 6 2018 18:30 End: Feb 6 2018 20:30 Location:  Mail Exchange Hotel, 688 Bourke St, Melbourne VIC 3000 Link:


Tuesday, February 6, 2018
6:30 PM to 8:30 PM
Mail Exchange Hotel
688 Bourke St, Melbourne VIC 3000


  • Russell Coker and others, LCA conference report

Russell Coker has done lots of Linux development over the years, mostly involved with Debian.

Mail Exchange Hotel, 688 Bourke St, Melbourne VIC 3000

Food and drinks will be available on premises.

Linux Users of Victoria is a subcommittee of Linux Australia.

February 6, 2018 - 18:30

Simon Lyall: 2018 – Day 2 – Keynote – Matthew Todd

Tue, 2018-01-23 10:03

Collaborating with Everybody: Open Source Drug Discovery

  • Term used is a bit undefined. Open Source, Free Drugs?
  • First Open Source Project – Praziquantel
    • Molecule has 2 mirror image forms. One does the job, other tastes awful. Pills were previously a mix
    • Project to just have pill with the single form
      • Created discussion
      • Online Lab Notebook
      • 75% of contributions were from private sector (especially Syncom)
      • Ended up finding a approach that worked, different from what was originally proposed from feedback.
      • Similar method found by private company that was also doing the work
  • Conventional Drug discovery
    • Find drug that kills something bad – Hit
    • Test it and see if it is suitable – Led
    • 13,500 molecules in public domain that kill maleria parasite
  • 6 Laws of Open Scrience
    • All data is open and all ideas are shared
    • Anyone can take part at any level of the project
  • Openness increasing seen as a key
  • Open Source Maleria
    • 4 campaigns
    • Work on a molecule, park it when doesn’t seem promising
    • But all data is still public
  • What it actually is
    • Electronic lab book (80% of scientists still use paper)
    • Using Labtrove, changing to labarchives
    • Everything you do goes up every day
    • Todo list
      • Tried stuff, ended up using issue list on github
      • Not using most other github stuff
    • Data on a Google Sheet
    • Light Website, twitter feed
  • Lab vs Code
  • Have a promising molecule – works well in mice
    • Would probably be a patentable state
    • Not sure yet exactly how it works
  • Competition – Predictive model
    • Lots of solutions submitted, not good enough to use
    • Hopeful a model will be created
  • Tried a a known-working molecule from elsewhere, but couldn’t get it to work
    • This is out in the open. Lots of discussion
  • School group able to recreate Daraprim, a high-priced US drug
  • Public Domain science is now accepted for publications
  • Need to to make computers understand molecule digram and convert to representative format which can then be search one.
  • Missing
    • Automated links to databases in tickets
    • Basic web page stuff, auto-porting of data, newsletter, become non-profit, stickers
    • Stuff is not folded back into the Wiki
  • OS Mycetoma – New Project
    • Fungus with no treatment
    • Working on possible molecule to treat
  • Some ideas on how to get products created this way to market – eg “data exclusivity”


James Morris: LCA 2018 Kernel Miniconf – SELinux Namespacing Slides

Mon, 2018-01-22 20:01

I gave a short talk on SELinux namespacing today at the Kernel Miniconf in Sydney — the slides from the talk are here:

This is a work in progress to which I’ve been contributing, following on from initial discussions at Linux Plumbers 2017.

In brief, there’s a growing need to be able to provide SELinux confinement within containers: typically, SELinux appears disabled within a container on Fedora-based systems, as a workaround for a lack of container support.  Underlying this is a requirement to provide per-namespace SELinux instances,  where each container has its own SELinux policy and private kernel SELinux APIs.

A prototype for SELinux namespacing was developed by Stephen Smalley, who released the code via  There were and still are many TODO items.  I’ve since been working on providing namespacing support to on-disk inode labels, which are represented by security xattrs.  See the v0.2 patch post for more details.

Much of this work will be of interest to other LSMs such as Smack, and many architectural and technical issues remain to be solved.  For those interested in this work, please see the slides, which include a couple of overflow pages detailing some known but as yet unsolved issues (supplied by Stephen Smalley).

I anticipate discussions on this and related topics (LSM stacking, core namespaces) later in the year at Plumbers and the Linux Security Summit(s), at least.

The session was live streamed — I gather a standalone video will be available soon!

ETA: the video is up! See:

Simon Lyall: 2018 – Day 1 – Session 3 – Developers, Developers Miniconf

Mon, 2018-01-22 18:03

Beyond Web 2.0 Russell Keith-Magee

  • Django guy
  • Back in 2005 when Django first came out
    • Web was fairly simple, click something and something happened
    • model, views, templates, forms, url routing
  • The web c 2016
    • Rich client
    • API
    • mobile clients, native apps
    • realtime channels
  • Rich client frameworks
    • reponse to increased complexity that is required
    • Complex client-side and complex server-side code
  • Isomorphic Javascript development
    • Same code on both client and server
    • Only works with javascript really
    • hacks to work with other languages but not great
  • Isomorphic javascript development
    • Requirements
    • Need something in-between server and browser
    • Was once done with Java based web clients
    • model, view, controller
  • API-first development
  • How does it work with high-latency or no-connection?
  • Part of the controller and some of the model needed in the client
    • If you have python on the server you need python on the client
    • brython, skulp, pypy.js
    • <script type=”text/pyton”>
    • Note: Not phyton being compiled into javascript. Python is run in the browser
    • Need to download full python interpreter though (500k-15M)
    • Fairly fast
  • Do we need a full python interpreter?
    • Maybe something just to run the bytecode
    • Batavia
    • Javascript implementation of python virtual machine
    • 10KB
    • Downside – slower than cpython on the same machine
  • WASM
    • Like assembly but for the web
    • Benefits from 70y of experience with assembly languages
    • Close to Cpython speed
    • But
      • Not quite on browsers
      • No garbage collection
      • Cannot manipulate DOM
      • But both coming soon
  • Example:
  • But “possible isn’t enough”

Using “old skool” Free tools to easily publish API documentation – Alec Clew

  • You API is successful if people are using it
  • High Quality and easy to use
  • Provide great docs (might cut down on support tickets)
  • Who are you writing for?
    • Might not have english as first language
    • New to the API
    • Might have different tech expertise (different languages)
    • Different tooling
  • Can be hard work
  • Make better docs
    • Use diagrams
    • Show real code (complete and working)
  • Keep your sentence simple
  • Keep the docs current
  • Treat documentation like code
    • Fix bugs
    • add features
    • refactor
    • automatic builds
    • Cross platform support
    • “Everything” is text and under version control
  • Demo using pandoc
  • Tools
  • pandoc, plantuml, Graphviz, M4, make, base/sed/python/etc


Lightning Talks

  • Nic – Alt attribute
    • need to be added to images
    • Don’t have alts when images as links
  • Vaibhav Sager – Travis-CI
    • Builds codes
    • Can build websites
    • Uses to build Resume
    • Build presentations
  • Steve Ellis
    • Openshift Origin Demo
  • Alec Clews
    • Python vs C vs PHP vs Java vs Go for small case study
    • Implemented simple xmlrpc client in 5 languages
    • Python and Go were straightforward, each had one simple trick (40-50 lines)
    • C was 100 lines. A lot harder. Conversions, etc all manual
    • PHP wasn’t too hard. easier in modern vs older PHP
  • Daurn
    • Lua
    • – Lua in the browser
  • Alistair
    • How not to docker ( don’t trust the Internet)
    • Don’t run privileged
    • Don’t expose your docker socket
    • Don’t use host network mode
    • Don’t where your code is FROM
    • Make sure your kernel on your host is secure
  • Daniel
    • Put proxy in front of the docker socket
    • You can use it to limit what no-priv users with socket access to docker port can do


Simon Lyall: 2018 – Day 1 – Session 2

Mon, 2018-01-22 16:03

Manage all your tasks with TaskWarrior Paul ‘@pjf’ Fenwick

  • Lots of task management software out there
    • Tried lots
    • Doesn’t like proprietary ones, but unable to add features he wants
    • Likes command line
  • Disclaimer: “Most systems do not work for most people”
  • TaskWarrior
    • Lots of features
    • Learning cliff

Intro to TaskWarrior

  • Command line
  • Simple level can be just a todo list
  • Can add tags
    • unstructured many to many
    • Added just put putting “+whatever” on command
    • Great for searching
    • Can put all people or all types of jobs togeather
  • Meta Tags
    • Automatic date related (eg due this week or today)
  • Project
    • A bunch of tasks
    • Can be strung togeather
    • eg Travel project, projects for each trip inside them
  • Contexts (show only some projects and tasks)
    • Work tasks
    • Tasks for just a client
    • Home stuff
  • Annotation (Taking notes)
    • $ task 31 annotate “extra stuff”
    • has an auto timestamp
    • show by default, or just show a count of them
  • Tasks associated with dates
    • “wait”
    • Don’t show task until a date (approx)
    • Hid a task for an amount of time
    • Scheduled tasks urgency boasted at specific date
  • Until
    • delete a task after a certain date
  • Relative to other tasks
    • eg book flights 30 days before a conference
    • good for scripting, create a whole bunch of related tasks for a project
  • due dates
    • All sorts of things give (see above) gives tasks higher priority
    • Tasks can be manually changed
  • Tools and plugins
    • Taskopen – Opens resources in annotations (eg website, editor)
  • Working with others
    • Bugworrier – interfaces with github trello, gmail, jira, trac, bugzilla and lots of things
    • Lots of settings
    • Keeps all in sync
  • Lots of extra stuff
    • Paul updates his shell prompt to remind him things are busy
  • Also has
    • Graphical reports: burndown, calendar
    • Hooks: Eg hooks to run all sort of stuff
    • Online Sync
    • Android client
    • Web client
  • Reminder it has a steep learning curve.

Love thy future self: making your systems ops-friendly Matt Palmer

  • Instrumentation
  • Instrumenting incoming requests
    • Count of the total number of requests (broken down by requestor)
    • Count of reponses (broken down by request/error)
    • How long it took (broken down by sucess/errors
    • How many right now
  • Get number of in-progress requests, average time etc
  • Instrumenting outgoing requests
    • For each downstream component
    • Number of request sent
    • how many reponses we’ve received (broken down by success/err)
    • How long it too to get the response (broken down by request/ error)
    • How many right now
  • Gives you
    • incoming/outgoing ratio
    • error rate = problem is downstream
  • Logs
    • Logs cost tends to be more than instrumentation
  • Three Log priorities
    • Error
      • Need a full stack trace
      • Add info don’t replace it
      • Capture all the relivant variables
      • Structure
    • Information
      • Startup messages
      • Basic request info
      • Sampling
    • Debug
      • printf debugging at webcale
      • tag with module/method
      • unique id for each request
      • late-bind log data if possible.
      • Allow selective activation at runtime (feature flag, special url, signals)
    • Summary
      • Visbility required
      • Fault isolation


Simon Lyall: 2018 – Day 1 – Session 1 – Kernel Miniconf

Mon, 2018-01-22 12:03

Look out for what’s in the security pipeline – Casey Schaufler

Old Protocols

  • SeLinux
    • No much changing
  • Smack
    • Network configuration improvements and catchup with how the netlable code wants things to be done.
  • AppArmor
    • Labeled objects
    • Networking
    • Policy stacking

New Security Modules

  • Some peopel think existing security modules don’t work well with what they are doing
  • Landlock
    • eBPF extension to SECMARK
    • Kills processes when it goes outside of what it should be doing
    • General purpose process tags
    • Fro application use ( app can decide what it wants based on tags, not something external to the process enforcing things )
  • HardChroot
    • Limits on chroot jail
    • mount restrictions
  • Safename
    • Prevents creation of unsafe files names
    • start, middle or end characters
  • SimpleFlow
    • Tracks tainted data

Security Module Stacking

  • Problems with incompatibility of module labeling
  • People want different security policy and mechanism in containers than from the base OS
  • Netfilter problems between smack and Apparmor


  • Containers are a little bit undefined right now. Not a kernel construct
  • But while not kernel constructs, need to work with and support them


  • Printing pointers (eg in syslog)
  • Usercopy


Ben Martin: 4cm thick wood cnc project: shelf

Sun, 2018-01-21 22:02
The lighter wood is about 4cm thick. Both of the sides are cut from a single plank of timber which left the feet with a slight weak point at the back. Given a larger bit of timber I would have tapered the legs outward from the back more gradually. But the design is restricted by the timber at hand.

The shelves are plywood which turned out fairly well after a few coats of poly. I knocked the extreme sharp edges of the ply so its a hurt a little rather than a lot if you accidentally poke the edge. This is a mixed machine and human build, the back of the plywood that meets the uprights was knocked off using a bandsaw.

Being able to CNC thick timber like this opens up more bold designs. Currently I have to use a 1/2 inch bit to get this reach. Stay tuned for more CNC timber fun!

Russell Coker: More About the Thinkpad X301

Tue, 2018-01-16 14:02

Last month I blogged about the Thinkpad X301 I got from a rubbish pile [1]. One thing I didn’t realise when writing that post is that the X301 doesn’t have the keyboard light that the T420 has. With the T420 I could press the bottom left (FN) and top right (PgUp from memory) keys on the keyboard to turn a light on the keyboard. This is really good for typing at night. While I can touch type the small keyboard on a laptop makes it a little difficult so the light is a feature I found useful. I wrote my review of the X301 before having to use it at night.

Another problem I noticed is that it crashes after running Memtest86+ for between 30 minutes and 4 hours. Memtest86+ doesn’t report any memory errors, the system just entirely locks up. I have 2 DIMMs for it (2G and 4G), I tried installing them in both orders, and I tried with each of them in the first slot (the system won’t boot if only the second slot is filled). Nothing changed. Now it is possible that this is something that might not happen in real use. For example it might only happen due to heat when the system is under sustained load which isn’t something I planned for that laptop. I would discard a desktop system that had such a problem because I get lots of free desktop PCs, but I’m prepared to live with a laptop that has such a problem to avoid paying for another laptop.

Last night the laptop battery suddenly stopped working entirely. I had it unplugged for about 5 minutes when it abruptly went off (no flashing light to warn that the battery was low or anything). Now when I plug it in the battery light flashes orange. A quick Google search indicates that this might mean that a fuse inside the battery pack has blown or that there might be a problem with the system board. Replacing the system board is much more than the laptop is worth and even replacing the battery will probably cost more than it’s worth. Previously bought a Thinkpad T420 at auction because it didn’t cost much more than getting a new battery and PSU for a T61 [2] and I expect I can find a similar deal if I poll the auction sites for a while.

Using an X series Thinkpad has been a good experience and I’ll definitely consider an X series for my next laptop. My previous history of laptops involved going from ones with a small screen that were heavy and clunky (what was available with 90’s technology and cost less than a car) to ones that had a large screen and were less clunky but still heavy. I hadn’t tried small and light with technology from the last decade, it’s something I could really get used to!

By today’s standards the X301 is deficient in a number of ways. It has 64G of storage (the same as my most recent phones) which isn’t much for software development, 6G of RAM which isn’t too bad but is small by today’s standards (16G is a common factory option nowadays), a 1440*900 screen which looks bad in any comparison (less than the last 3 phones I’ve owned), and a slow CPU. No two of these limits would be enough to make me consider replacing that laptop. Even with the possibility of crashing under load it was still a useful system. But the lack of a usable battery in combination with all the other issues makes the entire system unsuitable for my needs. I would be very happy to use a fast laptop with a high resolution screen even without a battery, but not with this list of issues.

Next week I’m going to a conference and there’s no possibility of buying a new laptop before then. So for a week when I need to use a laptop a lot I will have a sub-standard laptop.

It really sucks to have a laptop develop a problem that makes me want to replace it so soon after I got it.

Related posts:

  1. I Just Bought a new Thinkpad and the Lenovo Web Site Sucks I’ve just bought a Thinkpad T61 at auction for $AU796....
  2. Thinkpad X301 Another Broken Thinkpad A few months ago I wrote a...
  3. thinkpad back from repair On Tuesday my Thinkpad was taken for service to fix...

Jonathan Adamczewski: Priorities for my team

Wed, 2018-01-10 16:03

(unthreaded from here)

During the day, I’m a Lead of a group of programmers. We’re responsible for a range of tools and tech used by others at the company for making games.

I have a list of the my priorities (and some related questions) of things that I think are important for us to be able to do well as individuals, and as a team:

  1. Treat people with respect. Value their time, place high value on their well-being, and start with the assumption that they have good intentions
    (“People” includes yourself: respect yourself, value your own time and well-being, and have confidence in your good intentions.)
  2. When solving a problem, know the user and understand their needs.
    • Do you understand the problem(s) that need to be solved? (it’s easy to make assumptions)
    • Have you spoken to the user and listened to their perspective? (it’s easy to solve the wrong problem)
    • Have you explored the specific constraints of the problem by asking questions like:
      • Is this part needed? (it’s easy to over-reach)
      • Is there a satisfactory simpler alternative? (actively pursue simplicity)
      • What else will be needed? (it’s easy to overlook details)
    • Have your discussed your proposed solution with users, and do they understand what you intend to do? (verify, and pursue buy-in)
    • Do you continue to meet regularly with users? Do they know you? Do they believe that you’re working for their benefit? (don’t under-estimate the value of trust)
  3. Have a clear understanding of what you are doing.
    • Do you understand the system you’re working in? (it’s easy to make assumptions)
    • Have you read the documentation and/or code? (set yourself up to succeed with whatever is available)
    • For code:
      • Have you tried to modify the code? (pull a thread; see what breaks)
      • Can you explain how the code works to another programmer in a convincing way? (test your confidence)
      • Can you explain how the code works to a non-programmer?
  4. When trying to solve a problem, debug aggressively and efficiently.
    • Does the bug need to be fixed? (see 1)
    • Do you understand how the system works? (see 2)
    • Is there a faster way to debug the problem? Can you change code or data to cause the problem to occur more quickly and reliably? (iterate as quickly as you can, fix the bug, and move on)
    • Do you trust your own judgement? (debug boldly, have confidence in what you have observed, make hypotheses and test them)
  5. Pursue excellence in your work.
    • How are you working to be better understood? (good communication takes time and effort)
    • How are you working to better understand others? (don’t assume that others will pursue you with insights)
    • Are you responding to feedback with enthusiasm to improve your work? (pursue professionalism)
    • Are you writing high quality, easy to understand, easy to maintain code? How do you know? (continue to develop your technical skills)
    • How are you working to become an expert and industry leader with the technologies and techniques you use every day? (pursue excellence in your field)
    • Are you eager to improve (and fix) systems you have worked on previously? (take responsibility for your work)

The list was created for discussion with the group, and as an effort to articulate my own expectations in a way that will help my team understand me.

Composing this has been useful exercise for me as a lead, and definitely worthwhile for the group. If you’ve never tried writing down your own priorities, values, and/or assumptions, I encourage you to try it :)

David Rowe: Engage the Silent Drive

Mon, 2018-01-08 08:04

I’ve been busy electrocuting my boat – here are our first impressions of the Torqueedo Cruise 2.0T on the water.

About 2 years ago I decided to try sailing, so I bought a second hand Hartley TS16; a popular small “trailer sailor” here in Australia. Since then I have been getting out once every week, having some very pleasant days with friends and family, and even at times by myself. Sailing really takes you away from everything else in the world. It keeps you busy as you are always pulling a rope or adjusting this and that, and is physically very active as you are clambering all over the boat. Mentally there is a lot to learn, and I started as a complete nautical noob.

Sailing is so quiet and peaceful, you get propelled by the wind using aerodynamics and it feels like like magic. However this is marred by the noise of outboard motors, which are typically used at the start and end of the day to get the boat to the point where it can sail. They are also useful to get you out of trouble in high seas/wind, or when the wind dies. I often use the motor to “un hit” Australia when I accidentally lodge myself on a sand bar (I have a lot of accidents like that).

The boat came with an ancient 2 stroke which belched smoke and noise. After about 12 months this motor suffered a terminal melt down (impeller failure and over heated) so it was replaced with a modern 5HP Honda 4-stroke, which is much quieter and very fuel efficient.

My long term goal was to “electrocute” the boat and replace the infernal combustion outboard engine with an electric motor and battery pack. I recently bit the bullet and obtained a Torqeedo Cruise 2kW outboard from Eco Boats Australia.

My friend Matt and I tested the motor today and are really thrilled. Matt is an experienced Electrical Engineer and sailor so was an ideal companion for the first run of the Torqueedo.

Torqueedo Cruise 2.0 First Impressions

It’s silent – incredibly so. Just a slight whine conducted from the motor/gearbox pod beneath the water. The sound of water flowing around the boat is louder!

The acceleration is impressive, better than the 4-stroke. Make sure you sit down. That huge, low RPM prop and loads of torque. We settled on 1000W, experimenting with other power levels.

The throttle control is excellent, you can dial up any speed you want. This made parking (mooring) very easy compared to the 4-stroke which is more of a “single speed” motor (idles at 3 knots, 4-5 knots top speed) and is unwieldy for parking.

It’s fit for purpose. This is not a low power “trolling” motor, it is every bit as powerful as the modern Honda 5HP 4-stroke. We did a A/B test and obtained the same top speed (5 knots) in the same conditions (wind/tide/stretch of water). We used it with 15 knot winds and 1m seas and it was the real deal – pushing the boat exactly where we wanted to go with authority. This is not a compromise solution. The Torqueedo shows internal combustion who’s house it is.

We had some fun sneaking up on kayaks at low power, getting to within a few metres before they heard us. Other boaties saw us gliding past with the sails down and couldn’t work out how we were moving!

A hidden feature is Azipod steering – it steers through more than 270 degrees. You can reverse without reverse gear, and we did “donuts” spinning on the keel!

Some minor issues: Unlike the Honda the the Torqueedo doesn’t tilt complete out of the water when sailing, leaving some residual drag from the motor/propeller pod. It also has to be removed from the boat for trailering, due to insufficient road clearance.

Walk Through

Here are the two motors with the boat out of the water:

It’s quite a bit longer than the Honda, mainly due to the enormous prop. The centres of the two props are actually only 7cm apart in height above ground. I had some concerns about ground clearance, both when trailering and also in the water. I have enough problems hitting Australia and like the way my boat can float in just 30cm of water. I discussed this with my very helpful Torqueedo dealer, Chris. He said tests with short and long version suggested this wasn’t a problem and in fact the “long” version provided better directional control. More water on top of the prop is a good thing. They recommend 50mm minimum, I have about 100mm.

To get started I made up a 24V battery pack using a plastic tub and 8 x 3.2V 100AH Lithium cells, left over from my recent EV battery upgrade. The cells are in varying conditions; I doubt any of them have 100AH capacity after 8 years of being hammered in my EV. On the day we ran for nearly 2 hours before one of the weaker cells dipped beneath 2.5V. I’ll sort through my stock of second hand cells some time to optimise the pack.

The pack plus motor weighs 41kg, the 5HP Honda plus 5l petrol 32kg. At low power (600W, 3.5 knots), this 2.5kWHr pack will give us a range of 14 nm or 28km. Plenty – on a huge days sailing we cover 40km, of which just 5km would be on motor.

All that power on board is handy too, for example the load of a fridge would be trivial compared to the motor, and a 100W HF radio no problem. So now I can quaff ice-cold sparkling shiraz or a nice beer, while having an actual conversation and not choking on exhaust fumes!

Here’s Matt taking us for a test drive, not much to the Torqueedo above the water:

For a bit of fun we ran both motors (maybe 10HP equivalent) and hit 7 knots, almost getting the Hartley up on the plane. Does this make it a Hybrid boat?


We are in love. This is the future of boating. For sale – one 5HP Honda 4-stroke.

Linux Users of Victoria (LUV) Announce: Annual Penguin Picnic, January 28, 2018

Sun, 2018-01-07 18:03
Start: Jan 28 2018 12:00 End: Jan 28 2018 18:00 Start: Jan 28 2018 12:00 End: Jan 28 2018 18:00 Location:  Infoxchange, 33 Elizabeth St. Richmond


The Linux Users of Victoria Annual Penguin Picnic will be held on Sunday, January 28, starting at 12 noon at the Yarra Bank Reserve, Hawthorn.

Due to the predicted extreme hot weather on Sunday, the LUV committee has decided to change to an indoor picnic with dips, cheeses, cured meats, fruits, cakes, icecreams and icy poles, cool drinks, etc. instead of a BBQ.  The meeting will now be held at our regular workshop venue, Infoxchange at 33 Elizabeth St. Richmond, right by Victoria Parade and North Richmond railway station.

LUV would like to acknowledge Infoxchange for the Richmond venue.

Linux Users of Victoria Inc., is a subcommitee of Linux Australia.

January 28, 2018 - 12:00

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Jonathan Adamczewski: A little bit of floating point in a memory allocator — Part 1: Background

Sat, 2018-01-06 16:04

This post contains the same material as this thread of tweets, with a few minor edits.

Over my holiday break at the end of 2017, I took a look into the TLSF (Two Level Segregated Fit) memory allocator to better understand how it works. I’ve made use of this allocator and have been impressed by its real world performance, but never really done a deep dive to properly understand it.

The mapping_insert() function is a key part of the allocator implementation, and caught my eye. Here’s how that function is described in the paper A constant-time dynamic storage allocator for real-time systems:

I’ll be honest: from that description, I never developed a clear picture in my mind of what that function does.

(Reading it now, it seems reasonably clear – but I can say that only after I spent quite a bit of time using other methods to develop my understanding)

Something that helped me a lot was by looking at the implementation of that function from  There’s a bunch of long-named macro constants in there, and a few extra implementation details. If you collapse those it looks something like this:

void mapping_insert(size_t size, int* fli, int* sli) { int fl, sl; if (size < 256) { fl = 0; sl = (int)size / 8; } else { fl = fls(size); sl = (int)(size >> (fl - 5)) ^ 0x20; fl -= 7; } *fli = fl; *sli = sl; }

It’s a pretty simple function (it really is). But I still failed to *see* the pattern of results that would be produced in my mind’s eye.

I went so far as to make a giant spreadsheet of all the intermediate values for a range of inputs, to paint myself a picture of the effect of each step :) That helped immensely.

Breaking it down…

There are two cases handled in the function: one for when size is below a certain threshold, and on for when it is larger. The first is straightforward, and accounts for a small number of possible input values. The large size case is more interesting.

The function computes two values: fl and sl, the first and second level indices for a lookup table. For the large case, fl (where fl is “first level”) is computed via fls(size) (where fls is short for “find last set” – similar names, just to keep you on your toes).

fls() returns the index of the largest bit set, counting from the least significant slbit, which is the index of the largest power of two. In the words of the paper:

“the instruction fls can be used to compute the ⌊log2(x)⌋ function”

Which is, in C-like syntax: floor(log2(x))

And there’s that “fl -= 7” at the end. That will show up again later.

For the large case, the computation of sl has a few steps:

  sl = (size >> (fl – 5)) ^ 0x20;

Depending on shift down size by some amount (based on fl), and mask out the sixth bit?

(Aside: The CellBE programmer in me is flinching at that variable shift)

It took me a while (longer than I would have liked…) to realize that this
size >> (fl – 5) is shifting size to generate a number that has exactly six significant bits, at the least significant end of the register (bits 5 thru 0).

Because fl is the index of the most significant bit, after this shift, bit 5 will always be 1 – and that “^ 0x20” will unset it, leaving the result as a value between 0 and 31 (inclusive).

So here’s where floating point comes into it, and the cute thing I saw: another way to compute fl and sl is to convert size into an IEEE754 floating point number, and extract the exponent, and most significant bits of the mantissa. I’ll cover that in the next part, here.

Jonathan Adamczewski: A little bit of floating point in a memory allocator — Part 2: The floating point

Sat, 2018-01-06 16:04


This post contains the same material as this thread of tweets, with a few minor edits.

In IEEE754, floating point numbers are represented like this:


nnn is the exponent, which is floor(log2(size)) — which happens to be the fl value computed by TLSF.

sss… is the significand fraction: the part that follows the decimal point, which happens to be sl.

And so to calculate fl and sl, all we need to do is convert size to a floating point value (on recent x86 hardware, that’s a single instruction). Then we can extract the exponent, and the upper bits of the fractional part, and we’re all done :D

That can be implemented like this:

double sf = (int64_t)size; uint64_t sfi; memcpy(&sfi, &sf, 8); fl = (sfi >> 52) - (1023 + 7); sl = (sfi >> 47) & 31;

There’s some subtleties (there always is). I’ll break it down…

double sf = (int64_t)size;

Convert size to a double, with an explicit cast. size has type size_t, but using TLSF from, the largest supported allocation on 64bit architecture is 2^32 bytes – comfortably less than the precision provided by the double type. If you need your TLSF allocator to allocate chunks bigger than 2^53, this isn’t the technique for you :)

I first tried using float (not double), which can provide correct results — but only if the rounding mode happens to be set correctly. double is easier.

The cast to (int64_t) results in better codegen on x86: without it, the compiler will generate a full 64bit unsigned conversion, and there is no single instruction for that.

The cast tells the compiler to (in effect) consider the bits of size as if they were a two’s complement signed value — and there is an SSE instruction to handle that case (cvtsi2sdq or similar). Again, with the implementation we’re using size can’t be that big, so this will do the Right Thing.

uint64_t sfi; memcpy(&sfi, &sf, 8);

Copy the 8 bytes of the double into an unsigned integer variable. There are a lot of ways that C/C++ programmers copy bits from floating point to integer – some of them are well defined :) memcpy() does what we want, and any moderately respectable compiler knows how to select decent instructions to implement it.

Now we have floating point bits in an integer register, consisting of one sign bit (always zero for this, because size is always positive), eleven exponent bits (offset by 1023), and 52 bits of significant fraction. All we need to do is extract those, and we’re done :)

fl = (sfi >> 52) - (1023 + 7);

Extract the exponent: shift it down (ignoring the always-zero sign bit), subtract the offset (1023), and that 7 we saw earlier, at the same time.

sl = (sfi >> 47) & 31;

Extract the five most significant bits of the fraction – we do need to mask out the exponent.

And, just like that*, we have mapping_insert(), implemented in terms of integer -> floating point conversion.

* Actual code (rather than fragments) may be included in a later post…

Ben Martin: That gantry just pops right off

Fri, 2018-01-05 23:17
Hobby CNC machines sold as "3040" may have a gantry clearance of about 80mm and a z axis travel of around 55mm. A detached gantry is shown below. Notice that there are 3 bolts on the bottom side mounting the z-axis to the gantry. The stepper motor attaches on the side shown so there are 4 NEMA holes to hold the stepper. Note that the normal 3040 doesn't have the mounting plate shown on the z-axis, that crossover plate allows a different spindle to be mounted to this machine.

The plan is to create replacement sides with some 0.5inch offcut 6061 alloy. This will add 100mm to the gantry so it can more easily clear clamps and a 4th axis. Because that would move the cutter mount upward as well, replacing the z-axis with something that has more range, say 160mm becomes an interesting plan.

One advantage to upgrading a machine like this is that you can reassemble the machine after measuring and designing the upgrade and then cut replacement parts for the machine using the machine.

The 3040 can look a bit spartan with the gantry removed.

The preliminary research is done. Designs created. CAM done. I just have to cut 4 plates and then the real fun begins.

Pia Waugh: Pivoting ‘the book’ from individuals to systems

Thu, 2018-01-04 10:01

In 2016 I started writing a book, “Choose Your Own Adventure“, which I wanted to be a call to action for individuals to consider their role in the broader system and how they individually can make choices to make things better. As I progressed the writing of that book I realised the futility of changing individual behaviours and perspectives without an eye to the systems and structures within which we live. It is relatively easy to focus on oneself, but “no man is an island” and quite simply, I don’t want to facilitate people turning themselves into more beautiful cogs in a dysfunctional machine so I’m pivoting the focus of the book (and reusing the relevant material) and am now planning to finish the book by mid 2018.

I have recently realised four paradoxes which have instilled in me a sense of urgency to reimagine the world as we know it. I believe we are at a fork in the road where we will either reinforce legacy systems based on outdated paradigms with shiny new things, or choose to forge a new path using the new tools and opportunities at our disposal, hopefully one that is genuinely better for everyone. To do the latter, we need to critically assess the systems and structures we built and actively choose what we want to keep, what we should discard, what sort of society we want in the future and what we need to get there.

I think it is too easily forgotten that we invented all this and can therefore reinvent it if we so choose. But to not make a choice is to choose the status quo.

This is not to say I think everything needs to change. Nothing is so simplistic or misleading as a zero sum argument. Rather, the intent of this book is to challenge you to think critically about the systems you work within, whether they enable or disable the things you think are important, and most importantly, to challenge you to imagine what sort of world you want to see. Not just for you, but for your family, community and the broader society. I challenge you all to make 2018 a year of formative creativity in reimagining the world we live in and how we get there.

The paradoxes in brief, are as follows:

  • That though power is more distributed than ever, most people are still struggling to survive.
    It has been apparent to me for some time that there is a growing substantial shift in power from traditional gatekeepers to ordinary people through the proliferation of rights based philosophies and widespread access to technology and information. But the systemic (and artificial) limitations on most people’s time and resources means most people simply cannot participate fully in improving their own lives let alone in contributing substantially to the community and world in which they live. If we consider the impact of business and organisational models built on scarcity, centricity and secrecy, we quickly see that normal people are locked out of a variety of resources, tools and knowledge with which they could better their lives. Why do we take publicly funded education, research and journalism and lock them behind paywalls and then blame people for not having the skills, knowledge or facts at their disposal? Why do we teach children to be compliant consumers rather than empowered makers? Why do we put the greatest cognitive load on our most vulnerable through social welfare systems that then beget reliance? Why do we not put value on personal confidence in the same way we value business confidence, when personal confidence indicates the capacity for individuals to contribute to their community? Why do we still assume value to equate quantity rather than quality, like the number of hours worked rather than what was done in those hours? If a substantial challenge of the 21st century is having enough time and cognitive load to spare, why don’t we have strategies to free up more time for more people, perhaps by working less hours for more return? Finally, what do we need to do systemically to empower more people to move beyond survival and into being able to thrive.
  • Substantial paradigm shifts have happened but are not being integrated into people’s thinking and processes.
    The realisation here is that even if people are motivated to understand something fundamentally new to their worldview, it doesn’t necessarily translate into how they behave. It is easier to improve something than change it. Easier to provide symptomatic relief than to cure the disease. Interestingly I often see people confuse iteration for transformation, or symptomatic relief with addressing causal factors, so perhaps there is also a need for critical and systems thinking as part of the general curriculum. This is important because symptomatic relief, whilst sometimes necessary to alleviate suffering, is an effort in chasing one’s tail and can often perpetrate the problem. For instance, where providing foreign aid without mitigating displacement of local farmer’s efforts can create national dependence on further aid. Efforts to address causal factors is necessary to truly address a problem. Even if addressing the causal problem is outside your influence, then you should at least ensure your symptomatic relief efforts are not built to propagate the problem. One of the other problems we face, particularly in government, is that the systems involved are largely products of centuries old thinking. If we consider some of the paradigm shifts of our times, we have moved from scarcity to surplus, centralised to distributed, from closed to openness, analog to digital and normative to formative. And yet, people still assume old paradigms in creating new policies, programs and business models. For example how many times have you heard someone talk about innovative public engagement (tapping into a distributed network of expertise) by consulting through a website (maintaining central decision making control using a centrally controlled tool)? Or “innovation” being measured (and rewarded) through patents or copyright, both scarcity based constructs developed centuries ago? “Open government” is often developed by small insular teams through habitually closed processes without any self awareness of the irony of the approach. And new policy and legislation is developed in analog formats without any substantial input from those tasked with implementation or consideration with how best to consume the operating rules of government in the systems of society. Consider also the number of times we see existing systems assumed to be correct by merit of existing, without any critical analysis. For instance, a compliance model that has no measurable impact. At what point and by what mechanisms can we weigh up the merits of the old and the new when we are continually building upon a precedent based system of decision making? If 3D printing helped provide a surplus economy by which we could help solve hunger and poverty, why wouldn’t that be weighed up against the benefits of traditional scarcity based business models?
  • That we are surrounded by new things every day and yet there is a serious lack of vision for the future
    One of the first things I try to do in any organisation is understand the vision, the strategy and what success should look like. In this way I can either figure out how to best contribute meaningfully to the overarching goal, and in some cases help grow or develop the vision and strategy to be a little more ambitious. I like to measure progress and understand the baseline from which I’m trying to improve but I also like to know what I’m aiming for. So, what could an optimistic future look like for society? For us? For you? How do you want to use the new means at our disposal to make life better for your community? Do we dare imagine a future where everyone has what they need to thrive, where we could unlock the creative and intellectual potential of our entire society, a 21st century Renaissance, rather than the vast proportion of our collective cognitive capacity going into just getting food on the table and the kids to school. Only once you can imagine where you want to be can we have a constructive discussion where we want to be collectively, and only then can we talk constructively the systems and structures we need to support such futures. Until then, we are all just tweaking the settings of a machine built by our ancestors. I have been surprised to find in government a lot of strategies without vision, a lot of KPIs without measures of success, and in many cases a disconnect between what a person is doing and the vision or goals of the organisation or program they are in. We talk “innovation” a lot, but often in the back of people’s minds they are often imagining a better website or app, which isn’t much of a transformation. We are surrounded by dystopic visions of the distant future, and yet most government vision statements only go so far as articulating something “better” that what we have now, with “strategies” often focused on shopping lists of disconnected tactics 3-5 years into the future. The New Zealand Department of Conservation provides an inspiring contrast with a 50 year vision they work towards, from which they develop their shorter term stretch goals and strategies on a rolling basis and have an ongoing measurable approach.
  • That government is an important part of a stable society and yet is being increasingly undermined, both intentionally and unintentionally.
    The realisation here has been in first realising how important government (and democracy) is in providing a safe, stable, accountable, predictable and prosperous society whilst simultaneously observing first hand the undermining and degradation of the role of government both intentionally and unintentionally, from the outside and inside. I have chosen to work in the private sector, non-profit community sector, political sector and now public sector, specifically because I wanted to understand the “system” in which I live and how it all fits together. I believe that “government” – both the political and public sectors – has a critical part to play in designing, leading and implementing a better future. The reason I believe this, is because government is one of the few mechanisms that is accountable to the people, in democratic countries at any rate. Perhaps not as much as we like and it has been slow to adapt to modern practices, tools and expectations, but governments are one of the most powerful and influential tools at our disposal and we can better use them as such. However, I posit that an internal, largely unintentional and ongoing degradation of the public sectors is underway in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and other “western democracies”, spurred initially by an ideological shift from ‘serving the public good’ to acting more like a business in the “New Public Management” policy shift of the 1980s. This was useful double speak for replacing public service values with business values and practices which ignores the fact that governments often do what is not naturally delivered by the marketplace and should not be only doing what is profitable. The political appointment of heads of departments has also resulted over time in replacing frank, fearless and evidence based leadership with politically palatable compromises throughout the senior executive layer of the public sector, which also drives necessarily secretive behaviour, else the contradictions be apparent to the ordinary person. I see the results of these internal forms of degradations almost every day. From workshops where people under budget constraints seriously consider outsourcing all government services to the private sector, to long suffering experts in the public sector unable to sway leadership with facts until expensive consultants are brought in to ask their opinion and sell the insights back to the department where it is finally taken seriously (because “industry” said it), through to serious issues where significant failures happen with blame outsourced along with the risk, design and implementation, with the details hidden behind “commercial in confidence” arrangements. The impact on the effectiveness of the public sector is obvious, but the human cost is also substantial, with public servants directly undermined, intimidated, ignored and a growing sense of hopelessness and disillusionment. There is also an intentional degradation of democracy by external (but occasionally internal) agents who benefit from the weakening and limiting of government. This is more overt in some countries than others. A tension between the regulator and those regulated is a perfectly natural thing however, as the public sector grows weaker the corporate interests gain the upper hand. I have seen many people in government take a vendor or lobbyist word as gold without critical analysis of the motivations or implications, largely again due to the word of a public servant being inherently assumed to be less important than that of anyone in the private sector (or indeed anyone in the Minister’s office). This imbalance needs to be addressed if the public sector is to play an effective role. Greater accountability and transparency can help but currently there is a lack of common agreement on the broader role of government in society, both the political and public sectors. So the entire institution and the stability it can provide is under threat of death by a billion papercuts. Efforts to evolve government and democracy have largely been limited to iterations on the status quo: better consultation, better voting, better access to information, better services. But a rethink is required and the internal systemic degradations need to be addressed.

If you think the world is perfectly fine as is, then you are probably quite lucky or privileged. Congratulations. It is easy to not see the cracks in the system when your life is going smoothly, but I invite you to consider the cracks that I have found herein, to test your assumptions daily and to leave your counter examples in the comments below.

For my part, I am optimistic about the future. I believe the proliferation of a human rights based ideology, participatory democracy and access to modern technologies all act to distribute power to the people, so we have the capacity more so than ever to collectively design and create a better future for us all.

Let’s build the machine we need to thrive both individually and collectively, and not just be beautiful cogs in a broken machine.

Further reading:

Pia Waugh: Chapter 1.2: Many hands make light work, for a while

Thu, 2018-01-04 10:01

This is part of a book I am working on, hopefully due for completion by mid 2018. The original purpose of the book is to explore where we are at, where we are going, and how we can get there, in the broadest possible sense. Your comments, feedback and constructive criticism are welcome! The final text of the book will be freely available under a Creative Commons By Attribution license. A book version will be sent to nominated world leaders, to hopefully encourage the necessary questioning of the status quo and smarter decisions into the future. Additional elements like references, graphs, images and other materials will be available in the final digital and book versions and draft content will be published weekly. Please subscribe to the blog posts by the RSS category and/or join the mailing list for updates.

Back to the book overview or table of contents for the full picture. Please note the pivot from focusing just on individuals to focusing on the systems we live in and the paradoxes therein.

“Differentiation of labour and interdependence of society is reliant on consistent and predictable authorities to thrive” — Durkheim

Many hands makes light work is an old adage both familiar and comforting. One feels that if things get our of hand we can just throw more resources at the problem and it will suffice. However we have made it harder on ourselves in three distinct ways:

  • by not always recognising the importance of interdependence and the need to ensure the stability and prosperity of our community as a necessary precondition to the success of the individuals therein;
  • by increasingly making it harder for people to gain knowledge, skills and adaptability to ensure those “many hands” are able to respond to the work required and not trapped into social servitude; and
  • by often failing to recognise whether we need a linear or exponential response in whatever we are doing, feeling secure in the busy-ness of many hands.

Specialisation is when a person delves deep on a particular topic or skill. Over many millennia we have got to the point where we have developed extreme specialisation, supported through interdependence and stability, which gave us the ability to rapidly and increasingly evolve what we do and how we live. This resulted in increasingly complex social systems and structures bringing us to a point today where the pace of change has arguably outpaced our imagination. We see many people around the world clinging to traditions and romantic notions of the past whilst we hurtle at an accelerating pace into the future. Many hands have certainly made light work, but new challenges have emerged as a result and it is more critical than ever that we reimagine our world and develop our resilience and adaptability to change, because change is the only constant moving forward.

One human can survive on their own for a while. A tribe can divide up the labour quite effectively and survive over generations, creating time for culture and play. But when we established cities and states around 6000 years ago, we started a level of unprecedented division of labour and specialisation beyond mere survival. When the majority of your time, energy and resources go into simply surviving, you are largely subject to forces outside your control and unable to justify spending time on other things. But when survival is taken care of (broadly speaking) it creates time for specialisation and perfecting your craft, as well as for leisure, sport, art, philosophy and other key areas of development in society.

The era of cities itself was born on the back of an agricultural technology revolution that made food production far more efficient, creating surplus (which drove a need for record keeping and greater proliferation of written language) and prosperity, with a dramatic growth in specialisation of jobs. With greater specialisation came greater interdependence as it becomes in everyone’s best interests to play their part predictably. A simple example is a farmer needing her farming equipment to be reliable to make food, and the mechanic needs food production to be reliable for sustenance. Both rely on each other not just as customers, but to be successful and sustainable over time. Greater specialisation led to greater surplus as specialists continued to fine tune their crafts for ever greater outcomes. Over time, an increasing number of people were not simply living day to day, but were able to plan ahead and learn how to deal with major disruptions to their existence. Hunters and gatherers are completely subject to the conditions they live in, with an impact on mortality, leisure activities largely fashioned around survival, small community size and the need to move around. With surplus came spare time and the ability to take greater control over one’s existence and build a type of systemic resilience to change.

So interdependence gave us greater stability, as a natural result of enlightened self interest writ large where ones own success is clearly aligned with the success of the community where one lives. However, where interdependence in smaller communities breeds a kind of mutual understanding and appreciation, we have arguably lost this reciprocity and connectedness in larger cities today, ironically where interdependence is strongest. When you can’t understand intuitively the role that others play in your wellbeing, then you don’t naturally appreciate them, and disconnected self interest creates a cost to the community. When community cohesion starts to decline, eventually individuals also decline, except the small percentage who can either move communities or who benefit, intentionally or not, on the back of others misfortune.

When you have no visibility of food production beyond the supermarket then it becomes easier to just buy the cheapest milk, eggs or bread, even if the cheapest product is unsustainable or undermining more sustainably produced goods. When you have such a specialised job that you can’t connect what you do to any greater meaning, purpose or value, then it also becomes hard to feel valuable to society, or valued by others. We see this increasingly in highly specialised organisations like large companies, public sector agencies and cities, where the individual feels the dual pressure of being anything and nothing all at once.

Modern society has made it somewhat less intuitive to value others who contribute to your survival because survival is taken for granted for many, and competing in ones own specialisation has been extended to competing in everything without appreciation of the interdependence required for one to prosper. Competition is seen to be the opposite of cooperation, whereas a healthy sustainable society is both cooperative and competitive. One can cooperate on common goals and compete on divergent goals, thus making best use of time and resources where interests align. Cooperative models seem to continually emerge in spite of economic models that assume simplistic punishment and incentive based behaviours. We see various forms of “commons” where people pool their resources in anything from community gardens and ’share economies’ to software development and science, because cooperation is part of who we are and what makes us such a successful species.

Increasing specialisation also created greater surplus and wealth, generating increasingly divergent and insular social classes with different levels of power and people becoming less connected to each other and with wealth overwhelmingly going to the few. This pressure between the benefits and issues of highly structured societies and which groups benefit has ebbed and flowed throughout our history but, generally speaking, when the benefits to the majority outweigh the issues for that majority, then you have stability. With stability a lot can be overlooked, including at times gross abuses for a minority or the disempowered. However, if the balances tips too far the other way, then you get revolutions, secessions, political movements and myriad counter movements. Unfortunately many counter movements limit themselves to replacing people rather than the structures that created the issues however, several of these counter movements established some critical ideas that underpin modern society.

Before we explore the rise of individualism through independence and suffrage movements (chapter 1.3), it is worth briefly touching upon the fact that specialisation and interdependence, which are critical for modern societies, both rely upon the ability for people to share, to learn, and to ensure that the increasingly diverse skills are able to evolve as the society evolves. Many hands only make light work when they know what they are doing. Historically the leaps in technology, techniques and specialisation have been shared for others to build upon and continue to improve as we see in writings, trade, oral traditions and rituals throughout history. Gatekeepers naturally emerged to control access to or interpretations of knowledge through priests, academics, the ruling class or business class. Where gatekeepers grew too oppressive, communities would subdivide to rebalance the power differential, such a various Protestant groups, union movements and the more recent Open Source movements. In any case, access wasn’t just about power of gatekeepers. The costs of publishing and distribution grew as societies grew, creating a call from the business class for “intellectual property” controls as financial mechanisms to offset these costs. The argument ran that because of the huge costs of production, business people needed to be incentivised to publish and distribute knowledge, though arguably we have always done so as a matter of survival and growth.

With the Internet suddenly came the possibility for massively distributed and free access to knowledge, where the cost of publishing, distribution and even the capability development required to understand and apply such knowledge was suddenly negligible. We created a universal, free and instant way to share knowledge, creating the opportunity for a compounding effect on our historic capacity for cumulative learning. This is worth taking a moment to consider. The technology simultaneously created an opportunity for compounding our cumulative learning whilst rendered the reasons for IP protections negligible (lowered costs of production and distribution) and yet we have seen a dramatic increase in knowledge protectionism. Isn’t it to our collective benefit to have a well educated community that can continue our trajectory of diversification and specialisation for the benefit of everyone? Anyone can get access to myriad forms of consumer entertainment but our most valuable knowledge assets are fiercely protected against general and free access, dampening our ability to learn and evolve. The increasing gap between the haves and have nots is surely symptomatic of the broader increasing gap between the empowered and disempowered, the makers and the consumers, those with knowledge and those without. Consumers are shaped by the tools and goods they have access to, and limited by their wealth and status. But makers can create the tools and goods they need, and can redefine wealth and status with a more active and able hand in shaping their own lives.

As a result of our specialisation, our interdependence and our cooperative/competitive systems, we have created greater complexity in society over time, usually accompanied with the ability to respond to greater complexity. The problem is that a lot of our solutions to change have been linear responses to an exponential problem space. the assumption that more hands will continue to make light work often ignores the need for sharing skills and knowledge, and certainly ignores where a genuinely transformative response is required. A small fire might be managed with buckets, but at some point of growth, adding more buckets becomes insufficient and new methods are required. Necessity breeds innovation and yet when did you last see real innovation that didn’t boil down to simply more or larger buckets? Iteration is rarely a form of transformation, so it is important to always clearly understand the type of problem you are dealing with and whether the planned response needs to be linear or exponential. If the former, more buckets is probably fine. If the latter, every bucket is just a distraction from developing the necessary response.

Next chapter I’ll examine how the independence movements created the philosophical pre-condition for democracy, the Internet and the dramatic paradigm shifts to follow.

Colin Charles: Premier Open Source Database Conference Call for Papers closing January 12 2018

Tue, 2018-01-02 22:01

The call for papers for Percona Live Santa Clara 2018 was extended till January 12 2018. This means you still have time to get a submission in.

Topics of interest: MySQL, MongoDB, PostgreSQL & other open source databases. Don’t forget all the upcoming databases too (there’s a long list at db-engines).

I think to be fair, in the catch all “other”, we should also be thinking a lot about things like containerisation (Docker), Kubernetes, Mesosphere, the cloud (Amazon AWS RDS, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud SQL, etc.), analytics (ClickHouse, MariaDB ColumnStore), and a lot more. Basically anything that would benefit an audience of database geeks whom are looking at it from all aspects.

That’s not to say case studies shouldn’t be considered. People always love to hear about stories from the trenches. This is your chance to talk about just that.